from the world's big
Traffic air pollution may be linked to structural brain changes
Air pollution poses "a significant risk to brain development" according to researchers.
- A study found that childhood exposure to significant traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is linked with structural changes in the brain.
- Among children who had been exposed to higher levels of TRAP, researchers found smaller regional gray matter volumes in some areas of the brain including the cerebellum.
- Increased levels in early life TRAP were associated with increases in depression and anxiety scores for the children in the study.
An alarming new study found evidence that childhood exposure to significant traffic-related air pollution, or TRAP, is linked with structural changes in the brain. The longitudinal study conducted by the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center (CCHMC) discovered that children who were exposed to higher levels of TRAP during their first year of life had reductions in their gray matter volume and cortical thickness at age 12 when compared to peers with lower levels of exposure. Traffic-related air pollution is a toxic cocktail of gaseous pollutants that come from the emissions of motor vehicles as a result of fossil fuel combustion. These latest findings support evidence that TRAP, which can directly access the brain through nasal inhalation, contributes to neurological developmental disorders and diseases.
How the study was done
Clusters represent reduced cortical thickness in the high ECAT group compared to the low ECAT group.
Image Source: PLOS ONE
The participants in the study were a subset of children enrolled in the Cincinnati Childhood Allergy and Air Pollution Study. Researchers wanted to see if early life exposure to traffic-related air pollution was associated with changes in brain volume and cortical thickness. To do this, they used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to get anatomical brain images from a group of 147 12-year-old volunteers characterized by either high or low levels of TRAP exposure during their first year of life. That exposure was estimated using an "air sampling network" of 27 sites around Cincinnati. The average TRAP exposure for the high exposure group was about twice as high as the low exposure group. Using the anatomical brain images, researchers measured cortical thickness and differences in regional brain volume among the group of child-participants.
Reduced gray matter volume in the high ECAT group compared to the low ECAT group.
Image Source: PLOS ONE
The results of the study suggest that where a child lives and the air quality in that location can affect how his or her brain develops.
"Our study found that children with higher levels of exposure to TRAP demonstrated regional reductions of cortical thickness and gray matter volume relative to children with lower levels," write the authors of the study.
Gray matter includes areas of the brain that are involved in sensory perception (seeing, hearing, smelling, etc.) and motor control. Cortical thickness reflects the depth of outer gray matter. Among the children exposed to higher levels of TRAP, researchers found smaller regional gray matter volumes in certain areas of the brain including the cerebellum. This brain region grows rapidly in the first two years of life and is involved in the regulation of motor function, cognition, and emotion. "Cerebellar abnormalities are consistently associated with numerous mental health disorders including anxiety, ADHD, ASD, and schizophrenia," the authors note.
Decreased cerebellar volumes have also been linked to levels of depression and anxiety, and the researchers found evidence that each .25 mg per cubic meter increase in early life TRAP was associated with increases in depression and anxiety scores for the children. Similar evidence has associated air pollution with higher levels of anxiety and depression in adults. The study, however, is limited in that the findings hinge upon a single MRI examination showing a single moment in time of ongoing brain development.
"While the results are concerning, there still needs to be more research conducted to confirm and replicate the results, and to expand the analysis to include those whose [TRAP] exposure level falls in the middle as our study design only examined the high and low exposed participants," writes Dr. Kim Cecil, a researcher at CCHMC and lead author of the study, in an email to Big Think. "It is also important to note that elevated exposure doesn't necessarily mean children will experience any adverse effects."
She notes that at this point in the research, the study participants have been found to have normal IQ distributions.
How to know what the air quality is in your area
In 2018, one-third of Americans were living in an area that experienced poor air quality due to pollution. To find out what the air quality is in your area, you can go to the World's Air Pollution: Real-Time Air Quality Index. If you want to monitor the air quality in your own home, investing in an air quality monitor might be worth it, but what can you do if the numbers are showing a concerning level of air pollution?
"Though it can be difficult to avoid air pollution itself, doing things like exercising (in lesser exposed environments such as parks and other green spaces) and eating foods high in antioxidants may help mitigate the effects," writes Cecil. " We think inflammation is the primary mechanism behind our results, so things you can control like diet and exercise can be beneficial."
There's also a growing need to address the root of the problem. The fossil fuel industry, and government support of it, facilitate American reliance on fossil fuels that causes traffic-related air pollution. National, state, and local policy makers have a large role to play in protecting public health by strengthening air quality protections. Rather than subsidizing fossil fuels, elected officials can propose or support legislation that reduces our reliance on pollutants that diminish our air quality and put children's health at risk.
- Air pollution reduces human intelligence, study shows - Big Think ›
- In the US, Air Pollution Causes 200,000 Annual Deaths - Big Think ›
Educators and administrators must build new supports for faculty and student success in a world where the classroom might become virtual in the blink of an eye.
- If you or someone you know is attending school remotely, you are more than likely learning through emergency remote instruction, which is not the same as online learning, write Rich DeMillo and Steve Harmon.
- Education institutions must properly define and understand the difference between a course that is designed from inception to be taught in an online format and a course that has been rapidly converted to be offered to remote students.
- In a future involving more online instruction than any of us ever imagined, it will be crucial to meticulously design factors like learner navigation, interactive recordings, feedback loops, exams and office hours in order to maximize learning potential within the virtual environment.
A leading British space scientist thinks there is life under the ice sheets of Europa.
- A British scientist named Professor Monica Grady recently came out in support of extraterrestrial life on Europa.
- Europa, the sixth largest moon in the solar system, may have favorable conditions for life under its miles of ice.
- The moon is one of Jupiter's 79.
Neil deGrasse Tyson wants to go ice fishing on Europa<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="GLGsRX7e" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="f4790eb8f0515e036b24c4195299df28"> <div id="botr_GLGsRX7e_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/GLGsRX7e-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/GLGsRX7e-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/GLGsRX7e-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Water Vapor Above Europa’s Surface Deteced for First Time<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9c4abc8473e1b89170cc8941beeb1f2d"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/WQ-E1lnSOzc?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
New study shows white dwarf stars create an essential component of life.
- White dwarf stars create carbon atoms in the Milky Way galaxy, shows new study.
- Carbon is an essential component of life.
- White dwarfs make carbon in their hot insides before the stars die.
What Are White Dwarf Stars?<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="7b046e546ce994682b2553a8c978eb32"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/77a1KSxfaR0?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Master negotiator Chris Voss breaks down how to get what you want during negotiations.
- Former FBI negotiator Chris Voss explains how forced empathy is a powerful negotiating tactic.
- The key is starting a sentence with "What" or "How," causing the other person to look at the situation through your eyes.
- What appears to signal weakness is turned into a strength when using this tactic.
3 Tips on Negotiations, with FBI Negotiator Chris Voss | Best of '16 | Big Think<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="b86d518e9f0c9f9d7a7c686e07798152"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/-FLlBchonwM?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>This question forces a response, but—and this is key—the other person has to consider your side of the argument. They have to look at the situation from your perspective if they hope to offer a solution.</p><p>Offering a real-world example, Voss mentions coaching a high-end real estate agent. They were leasing an expensive home in the Hollywood Hills. The first time the negotiators asked the "how" question, the leasing agent relented on a number of terms. A little while later, they asked again. This time, the agent said, "If you want the house you're going to have to do it," signaling that the end of negotiations had been reached. </p><p>Voss says that "how" is not the only word that works. "What" is also a powerful entry into negotiations, such as "What am I supposed to do?" Again, you're forcing the other person to empathize. </p><p>This is a particularly tricky skill during a time when most conversations are online. Nuance is impossible without the immediacy of pantomimes and vocal fluctuations. Whataboutism is too easy an escape. </p>
Aikido Morihei Ueshiba (1883 - 1969, standing, centre left), founder of the Japanese martial art of aikido, demonstrating his art with a follower, at the opening ceremony of the newly-opened aikido headquarters, Hombu Dojo, in Shinjuku, Tokyo, 1967.
(Photo by Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)<p>Online debates often amount to little more than frustrated individuals pulling out their hair. In his book, "Against Empathy," Yale psychology professor Paul Bloom writes that effective altruists are able to focus on what really matters in everyday life.</p><p>For example, he compares politics to sports. Rooting for your favorite team isn't based in rationality. If you're a Red Sox fan, Yankees stats don't matter. You just want to destroy them. This, he believes, is how most people treat politics. "They don't care about truth because, for them, it's not really about truth."</p><p>Bloom writes that if his son believed our ancestors rode dinosaurs, it would horrify him, but "I can't think of a view that matters less for everyday life." We have to strive for rationality when the stakes are high. When involved in real decision-making processes that will affect their life, people are better able to express ideas and make arguments, and are more receptive to opposing ideas. </p><p>Because we "become inured to problems that seem unrelenting," it's imperative to make the problem seem immediate. As Voss says, giving the other side "the illusion of control" is one way of accomplishing this, as it forces them to take action. When people feel out of control, negotiations are impossible. People dig their heels in and refuse to budge. </p><p>What seems to be weakness is actually a strength. To borrow another martial arts metaphor, negotiations are like aikido: using your opponent's force against them while also protecting them from injury. Forcing empathy is one way to accomplish this task. You may get more than you ask for without the other side ever realizing they surrendered anything.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>