I'm *so* sorry my sarcasm makes me more creative
A new study shows people who use sarcasm have increased creativity, but are the benefits contagious?
If you grew up being told you have a “smart mouth," your parents may have been on to something. A study by Harvard University and Columbia University shows a link between sarcasm and creativity. Shocking. Researchers interacted with three groups of people who expressed themselves sarcastically, earnestly, and neutrally.
They found that the sarcastic group showed “enhanced creativity" when asked to perform creative tasks, likely because both promote abstract thinking. Responding in a way that is not straightforward or literal requires one to think outside of what is expected, the same skill set used when using creativity to create art or problem solve. The downside? If you are expressing sarcasm to someone who doesn't trust you, there's a greater chance of creating conflict. Oh so that's why Gandhi was always throwing shade to the British Empire with his hilarious throwdowns. Sarcasm can heighten conflict! Who knew?
Sarcasm requires a certain amount of intelligence from both the sender and receiver. The person making the sarcastic statement is thinking in a non-literal way and can read the social cues to know whether or not the person they are talking to will get it. The receiver has to make sense of what was said — read the tone; read the facial expressions; realize the person means the opposite; and react accordingly. It's a high form of intelligence, as it requires both cerebral and social finesse. That's why sarcasm over text or email is so often misunderstood, and why sarcasm from strangers leads to conflict: We can't read you well enough to know what you mean.
Sarcasm isn't just about being funny or off-kilter; it's a way of helping you see your own truth. If I say something that is the opposite of what I mean as a way of saying what I think is true, it tends to make you ask what you think is true.
John Lennon is a great example of a creative, sarcastic, and brilliant thinker. His abstract thinking led to creative innovations both fantastic ("Tomorrow Never Knows") and questionable experiments ("Revolution 9"), and sarcasm that instigated conflict with critics, the American public, and the Nixon-era FBI. Lennon used humor to point to truth, the way great comedians often do (a phenomena I've previously written about). Sarcasm isn't just about being funny or off-kilter; it's a way of helping you see your own truth. If I say something that is the opposite of what I mean as a way of saying what I think is true, it tends to make you ask what you think is true. As the study pointed out, even those on the receiving end of the humorous remarks saw spikes in their creativity. Hearing other's divergent thinking leads us to have our own divergent thinking, our own creativity, our own quest for truth.
So if you're not funny, hang out with funny people. You'll be more creative for it. As a great Kids in the Hall sketch once pointed out, sarcastic people are soooo lonely. And if you are prone to sarcasm, be careful about how you wield this double-edged sword. Seriously.
Stephen Fry tells of when a Mormon audience didn't appreciate a sarcastic remark about heaven. He was making a joke, but they clearly didn't see the humor in it.
- The meaning of the word 'confidence' seems obvious. But it's not the same as self-esteem.
- Confidence isn't just a feeling on your inside. It comes from taking action in the world.
- Join Big Think Edge today and learn how to achieve more confidence when and where it really matters.
If you're lacking confidence and feel like you could benefit from an ego boost, try writing your life story.
In truth, so much of what happens to us in life is random – we are pawns at the mercy of Lady Luck. To take ownership of our experiences and exert a feeling of control over our future, we tell stories about ourselves that weave meaning and continuity into our personal identity.
Researchers hope the technology will further our understanding of the brain, but lawmakers may not be ready for the ethical challenges.
- Researchers at the Yale School of Medicine successfully restored some functions to pig brains that had been dead for hours.
- They hope the technology will advance our understanding of the brain, potentially developing new treatments for debilitating diseases and disorders.
- The research raises many ethical questions and puts to the test our current understanding of death.
The image of an undead brain coming back to live again is the stuff of science fiction. Not just any science fiction, specifically B-grade sci fi. What instantly springs to mind is the black-and-white horrors of films like Fiend Without a Face. Bad acting. Plastic monstrosities. Visible strings. And a spinal cord that, for some reason, is also a tentacle?
But like any good science fiction, it's only a matter of time before some manner of it seeps into our reality. This week's Nature published the findings of researchers who managed to restore function to pigs' brains that were clinically dead. At least, what we once thought of as dead.
What's dead may never die, it seems
The researchers did not hail from House Greyjoy — "What is dead may never die" — but came largely from the Yale School of Medicine. They connected 32 pig brains to a system called BrainEx. BrainEx is an artificial perfusion system — that is, a system that takes over the functions normally regulated by the organ. The pigs had been killed four hours earlier at a U.S. Department of Agriculture slaughterhouse; their brains completely removed from the skulls.
BrainEx pumped an experiment solution into the brain that essentially mimic blood flow. It brought oxygen and nutrients to the tissues, giving brain cells the resources to begin many normal functions. The cells began consuming and metabolizing sugars. The brains' immune systems kicked in. Neuron samples could carry an electrical signal. Some brain cells even responded to drugs.
The researchers have managed to keep some brains alive for up to 36 hours, and currently do not know if BrainEx can have sustained the brains longer. "It is conceivable we are just preventing the inevitable, and the brain won't be able to recover," said Nenad Sestan, Yale neuroscientist and the lead researcher.
As a control, other brains received either a fake solution or no solution at all. None revived brain activity and deteriorated as normal.
The researchers hope the technology can enhance our ability to study the brain and its cellular functions. One of the main avenues of such studies would be brain disorders and diseases. This could point the way to developing new of treatments for the likes of brain injuries, Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and neurodegenerative conditions.
"This is an extraordinary and very promising breakthrough for neuroscience. It immediately offers a much better model for studying the human brain, which is extraordinarily important, given the vast amount of human suffering from diseases of the mind [and] brain," Nita Farahany, the bioethicists at the Duke University School of Law who wrote the study's commentary, told National Geographic.
An ethical gray matter
Before anyone gets an Island of Dr. Moreau vibe, it's worth noting that the brains did not approach neural activity anywhere near consciousness.
The BrainEx solution contained chemicals that prevented neurons from firing. To be extra cautious, the researchers also monitored the brains for any such activity and were prepared to administer an anesthetic should they have seen signs of consciousness.
Even so, the research signals a massive debate to come regarding medical ethics and our definition of death.
Most countries define death, clinically speaking, as the irreversible loss of brain or circulatory function. This definition was already at odds with some folk- and value-centric understandings, but where do we go if it becomes possible to reverse clinical death with artificial perfusion?
"This is wild," Jonathan Moreno, a bioethicist at the University of Pennsylvania, told the New York Times. "If ever there was an issue that merited big public deliberation on the ethics of science and medicine, this is one."
One possible consequence involves organ donations. Some European countries require emergency responders to use a process that preserves organs when they cannot resuscitate a person. They continue to pump blood throughout the body, but use a "thoracic aortic occlusion balloon" to prevent that blood from reaching the brain.
The system is already controversial because it raises concerns about what caused the patient's death. But what happens when brain death becomes readily reversible? Stuart Younger, a bioethicist at Case Western Reserve University, told Nature that if BrainEx were to become widely available, it could shrink the pool of eligible donors.
"There's a potential conflict here between the interests of potential donors — who might not even be donors — and people who are waiting for organs," he said.
It will be a while before such experiments go anywhere near human subjects. A more immediate ethical question relates to how such experiments harm animal subjects.
Ethical review boards evaluate research protocols and can reject any that causes undue pain, suffering, or distress. Since dead animals feel no pain, suffer no trauma, they are typically approved as subjects. But how do such boards make a judgement regarding the suffering of a "cellularly active" brain? The distress of a partially alive brain?
The dilemma is unprecedented.
Setting new boundaries
Another science fiction story that comes to mind when discussing this story is, of course, Frankenstein. As Farahany told National Geographic: "It is definitely has [sic] a good science-fiction element to it, and it is restoring cellular function where we previously thought impossible. But to have Frankenstein, you need some degree of consciousness, some 'there' there. [The researchers] did not recover any form of consciousness in this study, and it is still unclear if we ever could. But we are one step closer to that possibility."
She's right. The researchers undertook their research for the betterment of humanity, and we may one day reap some unimaginable medical benefits from it. The ethical questions, however, remain as unsettling as the stories they remind us of.
A space memorial company plans to launch the ashes of "Pikachu," a well-loved Tabby, into space.
- Steve Munt, Pikachu's owner, created a GoFundMe page to raise money for the mission.
- If all goes according to plan, Pikachu will be the second cat to enter space, the first being a French feline named Felicette.
- It might seem frivolous, but the cat-lovers commenting on Munt's GoFundMe page would likely disagree.
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