Conspiracy theories: Why more educated people don't believe them

What makes some of us more susceptible to conspiracy theories than others? It may have to do with our level of education. 

Conspiracies (Web Exclusive): Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO), published on Mar 27, 2016
Conspiracies (Web Exclusive): Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO), published on Mar 27, 2016

For some, conspiracy theories are just a fun way to spend Sunday night watching John Oliver. For others, conspiracy theories form a worldview that can be dangerous for the general public. Consider, for example, beliefs in conspiracies about vaccination, or such connected to certain ethnic groups. The recent proliferation of fake news also taps in this common human tendency to make sense of complex matters by simplifying them and identifying an omnipotent actor to blame.

But what makes some of us more susceptible to conspiracy theories than others? While education seems like an obvious answer, there is more to be explained about the processes that underlie this relationship. A study conducted in The Netherlands by Jan-Willem van Prooijen examines exactly which side-effects of education lead to higher immunity to conspiracies.

Van Proijeen analyzed data collected from a representative sample of the Dutch population. The participants completed questionnaires that measured their belief in conspiracies, as well as their belief in simple solutions, feelings of powerlessness, subjective social class and analytic thinking. The results showed that feelings of powerlessness and belief in simple solutions predicted an increased belief in conspiracy theories.

Belief in simple solutions is people's tendency to embrace relatively simplistic explanations for complex events. A higher education level increases the capacity for analytical thinking as well as the ability to detect nuances in arguments. This, in turn, reduces the belief in conspiracy theories.

Moreover, throughout their educational journey, people learn how to solve problems and develop the skills to control their external environment. As a consequence, people with higher levels of education feel more in control of their lives and experience fewer feelings of powerlessness. This makes them less likely to believe that a single actor or group of actors is controlling complex processes in a society.

“Lacking a sense of control leads to mental sense-making in the form of illusory pattern perception, that is, connecting dots that is not necessarily connected in reality (Whitson & Galinsky, 2008). These sense-making activities are central in belief in conspiracy theories, which are designed to increase understanding of a distressing situation."

The findings of the study suggest that if we would like to live in less paranoid societies we will have to teach the members of our communities analytical thinking, provide insight that societal problems have no simple solutions, and stimulate in them a sense of control.


A brief history of human dignity

What is human dignity? Here's a primer, told through 200 years of great essays, lectures, and novels.

Credit: Benjavisa Ruangvaree / AdobeStock
Sponsored by the Institute for Humane Studies
  • Human dignity means that each of our lives have an unimpeachable value simply because we are human, and therefore we are deserving of a baseline level of respect.
  • That baseline requires more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose.
  • We look at incredible writings from the last 200 years that illustrate the push for human dignity in regards to slavery, equality, communism, free speech and education.
Keep reading Show less

Astrophysicists: Gamma-ray jets exceed the speed of light

Scientists find that bursts of gamma rays may exceed the speed of light and cause time-reversibility.

An artist's drawing of a particle jet emanating from a black hole at the center of a blazar.

Credit: DESY, Science Communication Lab (used with permission by Astronomy Picture of the Day, which is co-managed by Robert Nemiroff at Michigan Tech).
Surprising Science
  • Astrophysicists propose that gamma-ray bursts may exceed the speed of light.
  • The superluminal jets may also be responsible for time-reversibility.
  • The finding doesn't go against Einstein's theory because this effect happens in the jet medium not a vacuum.
Keep reading Show less

Scientists find the "magic number" that links forces of the universe

Researchers dramatically improve the accuracy of a number that connects fundamental forces.

The Universe and the fine-structure constant.

Credit: Adobe
Surprising Science
  • A team of physicists carried out experiments to determine the precise value of the fine-structure constant.
  • This pure number describes the strength of the electromagnetic forces between elementary particles.
  • The scientists improved the accuracy of this measurement by 2.5 times.
Keep reading Show less

A new system separates oxygen and hydrogen from Mars’ water

Scientists at Washington University are patenting a new electrolyzer designed for frigid Martian water.

Illustration of Mars' long-gone Jezero Lake

Technology & Innovation
  • Mars explorers will need more oxygen and hydrogen than they can carry to the Red Planet.
  • Martian water may be able to provide these elements, but it is extremely salty water.
  • The new method can pull oxygen and hydrogen for breathing and fuel from Martian brine.
Keep reading Show less

How officials will ensure the COVID-19 vaccine stays cold enough in transit

Pfizer's vaccine needs to be kept at -100°F until it's administered. Can caregivers deliver?

Scroll down to load more…