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Our Troubling (And Sexist) Fascination With High Heels
Nicola Thorp was recently sent home without pay for refusing to wear heels. Sexism in the workplace is only the first problem with this footwear.
Standing up is no small feat. Bipedalism is one of the qualities that helped humans climb the food chain. Yet, observing the hunched habits of smart phone addicts, we may return to quadrupedalism soon enough. Evolution does not take our well-being into consideration.
The fault is ours. As Daniel Lieberman argues, cultural evolution often affects our genome more than biological evolution. Our diet and sleeping patterns, the lights we use, machinery, and the climate we live in all influence our DNA. As does our fashion choices.
Recently Nicola Thorp, temping for a London employment agency, was sent home without pay for refusing to wear high heels. She was laughed at when mentioning her male counterparts rocking flats. For all the exhortation regarding equal pay in America, equal dress is rarely uttered.
Video memes highlighting old cinema have been emerging—Hollywood’s ‘Free, White and 21’ moment; the sexual and social dominance of spanking—yet little discussion regarding chronic injuries from elevating your heels two to four to six inches off the ground circulates. That is, until Thorp started an online petition, which has garnered 140,000 signatures.
Her argument, along with many others, is that forcing women to wear heels is sexist. While this is certainly true, a deeper issue is at play: humans did not evolve to mosey about with aloft heels. The biomechanical price we’re paying is horrific.
Consider the complex mechanisms that allowed us to stand in the first place. First, our hips. Chimpanzees don’t walk as much as waddle thanks to backwards-facing ilium. Evolution did us a solid by rotating our pelvis sideways, which creates a smoother gait and allows for greater range of motion in our legs. The two curves of our spine is another mechanical victory.
Everything begins with our feet, however. A quarter of our muscles lie below our ankles; each foot features thirty-three joints. Arches are another win—they help give us a spring in our step. Sure, we no longer have an extended big toe; swinging on branches is no longer possible. In that, evolution has failed us.
Given the benefits of bipedalism—the ability to see into the distance to avoid predators; freeing up our hands to accomplish innumerable tasks—sacrificing marsupial acrobatics is understandable. Yet so few of us treat our feet like the incredible tools they are. Instead we shove them into tight mittens, as if each was merely one bone protected by a sock and leather. If you think you have bodily control, try moving each of your toes independently.
This terrible habit of binding our feet with restrictive molds on a daily basis not only aids in causing bunions, hammertoes, and plantar fasciitis, the effects reverberate system-wide. Biomechanist Katy Bowman writes,
The complex machinery of the feet plays a critical role not only in the obvious realms of gait patterns and ankle stabilization but also in whole-body balance, nerve conduction, and cardiovascular circulation.
The cultural appreciation of high heels is broad and deep: sexual fetishism, toned legs and rear, being civilized. One New Yorker writer admits to being ‘a slave to the desire that rules our libidinal culture.’ Bowman notes that lack of shoes was associated with savagery in high society—covering your feet translated to class status. People believed they were elevated from the ground, literally and figuratively.
While I’m a barefoot advocate and have worn minimalist sneakers for a decade, I’m not anti-shoes. My half-dozen pairs emerge as necessary. But in my yoga and fitness classes I daily watch consistent gait problems and turnouts, as well as perpetual balance issues. When I offer foot stretches foreheads cringe and tempers flare. I find it odd that we exercise and stretch every part of our bodies on a regular basis except our feet.
The chain of pain beginning in our lowest extremity resonates upwards. Calves, low backs, shoulders, and necks all potentially bear the brunt of wearing heels. Constant shoe wearing itself is a major problem, given the sensory awareness we miss out on. Amazingly, one reason seniors fall is due to a lack of connection between their feet and brains thanks to a lifetime of shoes.
We might not call the barefoot savages anymore, but shoes are part of our identity. They help us move around in the world, yet they also show others how we move around in the world. We confuse symbol with reality. We sacrifice health for status, mistaking comfort with poor habits. And then, as Nicola Thorp’s case points out, we demand others adhere to certain conventions due to an ignorance of what truly matters.
As Lieberman writes,
Egocentric creatures that we are, humans often mistakenly consider our quintessential features to be special when in fact they are simply unusual.
Unusual, and all too often, anything but healthy.
Image: Sergei Supinsky / Getty Images
Derek Beres is a Los-Angeles based author, music producer, and yoga/fitness instructor at Equinox Fitness. Stay in touch @derekberes.
Northwell Health is using insights from website traffic to forecast COVID-19 hospitalizations two weeks in the future.
- The machine-learning algorithm works by analyzing the online behavior of visitors to the Northwell Health website and comparing that data to future COVID-19 hospitalizations.
- The tool, which uses anonymized data, has so far predicted hospitalizations with an accuracy rate of 80 percent.
- Machine-learning tools are helping health-care professionals worldwide better constrain and treat COVID-19.
The value of forecasting<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNTA0Njk2OC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyMzM2NDQzOH0.rid9regiDaKczCCKBsu7wrHkNQ64Vz_XcOEZIzAhzgM/img.jpg?width=980" id="2bb93" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="31345afbdf2bd408fd3e9f31520c445a" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" data-width="1546" data-height="1056" />
Northwell emergency departments use the dashboard to monitor in real time.
Credit: Northwell Health<p>One unique benefit of forecasting COVID-19 hospitalizations is that it allows health systems to better prepare, manage and allocate resources. For example, if the tool forecasted a surge in COVID-19 hospitalizations in two weeks, Northwell Health could begin:</p><ul><li>Making space for an influx of patients</li><li>Moving personal protective equipment to where it's most needed</li><li>Strategically allocating staff during the predicted surge</li><li>Increasing the number of tests offered to asymptomatic patients</li></ul><p>The health-care field is increasingly using machine learning. It's already helping doctors develop <a href="https://care.diabetesjournals.org/content/early/2020/06/09/dc19-1870" target="_blank">personalized care plans for diabetes patients</a>, improving cancer screening techniques, and enabling mental health professionals to better predict which patients are at <a href="https://healthitanalytics.com/news/ehr-data-fuels-accurate-predictive-analytics-for-suicide-risk" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">elevated risk of suicide</a>, to name a few applications.</p><p>Health systems around the world have already begun exploring how <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315944/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">machine learning can help battle the pandemic</a>, including better COVID-19 screening, diagnosis, contact tracing, and drug and vaccine development.</p><p>Cruzen said these kinds of tools represent a shift in how health systems can tackle a wide variety of problems.</p><p>"Health care has always used the past to predict the future, but not in this mathematical way," Cruzen said. "I think [Northwell Health's new predictive tool] really is a great first example of how we should be attacking a lot of things as we go forward."</p>
Making machine-learning tools openly accessible<p>Northwell Health has made its predictive tool <a href="https://github.com/northwell-health/covid-web-data-predictor" target="_blank">available for free</a> to any health system that wishes to utilize it.</p><p>"COVID is everybody's problem, and I think developing tools that can be used to help others is sort of why people go into health care," Dr. Cruzen said. "It was really consistent with our mission."</p><p>Open collaboration is something the world's governments and health systems should be striving for during the pandemic, said Michael Dowling, Northwell Health's president and CEO.</p><p>"Whenever you develop anything and somebody else gets it, they improve it and they continue to make it better," Dowling said. "As a country, we lack data. I believe very, very strongly that we should have been and should be now working with other countries, including China, including the European Union, including England and others to figure out how to develop a health surveillance system so you can anticipate way in advance when these things are going to occur."</p><p>In all, Northwell Health has treated more than 112,000 COVID patients. During the pandemic, Dowling said he's seen an outpouring of goodwill, collaboration, and sacrifice from the community and the tens of thousands of staff who work across Northwell.</p><p>"COVID has changed our perspective on everything—and not just those of us in health care, because it has disrupted everybody's life," Dowling said. "It has demonstrated the value of community, how we help one another."</p>
"You dream about these kinds of moments when you're a kid," said lead paleontologist David Schmidt.
- The triceratops skull was first discovered in 2019, but was excavated over the summer of 2020.
- It was discovered in the South Dakota Badlands, an area where the Triceratops roamed some 66 million years ago.
- Studying dinosaurs helps scientists better understand the evolution of all life on Earth.
Credit: David Schmidt / Westminster College<p style="margin-left: 20px;">"We had to be really careful," Schmidt told St. Louis Public Radio. "We couldn't disturb anything at all, because at that point, it was under law enforcement investigation. They were telling us, 'Don't even make footprints,' and I was thinking, 'How are we supposed to do that?'"</p><p>Another difficulty was the mammoth size of the skull: about 7 feet long and more than 3,000 pounds. (For context, the largest triceratops skull ever unearthed was about <a href="https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02724634.2010.483632" target="_blank">8.2 feet long</a>.) The skull of Schmidt's dinosaur was likely a <em>Triceratops prorsus, </em>one of two species of triceratops that roamed what's now North America about 66 million years ago.</p>
Credit: David Schmidt / Westminster College<p>The triceratops was an herbivore, but it was also a favorite meal of the T<em>yrannosaurus rex</em>. That probably explains why the Dakotas contain many scattered triceratops bone fragments, and, less commonly, complete bones and skulls. In summer 2019, for example, a separate team on a dig in North Dakota made <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/26/science/triceratops-skull-65-million-years-old.html" target="_blank">headlines</a> after unearthing a complete triceratops skull that measured five feet in length.</p><p>Michael Kjelland, a biology professor who participated in that excavation, said digging up the dinosaur was like completing a "multi-piece, 3-D jigsaw puzzle" that required "engineering that rivaled SpaceX," he jokingly told the <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2019/07/26/science/triceratops-skull-65-million-years-old.html" target="_blank">New York Times</a>.</p>
Morrison Formation in Colorado
James St. John via Flickr
|Credit: Nobu Tamura/Wikimedia Commons|
Archaeologists discover a cave painting of a wild pig that is now the world's oldest dated work of representational art.
- Archaeologists find a cave painting of a wild pig that is at least 45,500 years old.
- The painting is the earliest known work of representational art.
- The discovery was made in a remote valley on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi.
Oldest Cave Art Found in Sulawesi<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="a9734e306f0914bfdcbe79a1e317a7f0"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/b-wAYtBxn7E?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
The Persian polymath and philosopher of the Islamic Golden Age teaches us about self-awareness.