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Men claim they have more sexual partners than women. But is it true?
A study of over 15,000 men and women reveals interesting data regarding what we claim.
Of all the strange twists and turns the national media has taken in recent years, an emphasis on the mainstreaming of “locker room talk”—the domain of undersexed and overconfident teenage boys—is certainly one of the odder pivots. Yet here we are, living in a time when the merits concerning the exploitation of women are being debated on the public stage.
The #metoo movement aside, such locker room talk is reflective of the culture at large, according to a new study published in The Journal of Sex Research. In a mathematically-correct world, the number of opposite-sex partners claimed by both genders would be equal. Yet that’s not at all how it turns out.
The study includes responses by over 15,000 men and women between the ages of 16-74. Men claimed a lifetime average of 14.14 partners, while women say they’ve slept with 7.12 men. Even if women were slightly understating their sexual activity, that men would inflate their numbers is not really that surprising. But why?
Stereotypes only have power when a certain amount of truth is expressed. That men would overreport is expected. What’s most interesting about this study is understanding why this is the case.
The researchers offer three explanations for the disparity:
- Sex workers might be underrepresented. If men include the number of women they paid to have sex with, and those workers are not included in the survey, that would wildly skew the numbers. Overall, 10.8 percent of men and .1 percent of women claim to have paid for sex.
- Bad memories. When we estimate, we tend to skew numbers higher. Men might also include “nonpenetrative” sexual encounters in their tally, while women are less likely to do so. For example, men more often reported oral sex as a sexual encounter, while women did not.
- Gender norms and expectations play an essential role. Social disapproval is still a powerful motivator in both directions: men overreport while women underreport to save face, even if that face is being expressed in a survey in which the data is not publicly released.
The researchers believe that all three of these reasons play a role in the accounting discrepancy, though they do not wager a guess as to which is the primary factor.
Women responded more conservatively than men as well. At the top 99th percentile, men claimed 110 partners while women stated 50. Men were also more likely to estimate than women. Nine percent of men conclude that one-night stands are “not wrong at all,” while that number is 18 percent for women. Women were also more likely than men to believe having sex with a married partner is “always wrong” by eight percentage points, 65 versus 57.
Lead researcher Dr. Kristin Mitchell, from the University of Glasgow, said that more accurate reporting could help assess individual risk for sexual diseases.
Most existing studies of reporting bias are limited to students or high-risk populations, or are conducted as 'laboratory' settings, so they don't show how members of the public respond in a 'real-life' survey. To our knowledge, our study is the first attempt to look at all the key types of explanation for the gender discrepancy within the same large and representative sample.
Mitchell and colleagues also report that the gap has closed in recent years, which they view as a positive. Perhaps, little by little, locker room banter is quieting down, even if at the moment it doesn’t appear to be the case.
The team caught a glimpse of a process that takes 18,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.
- In Italy, a team of scientists is using a highly sophisticated detector to hunt for dark matter.
- The team observed an ultra-rare particle interaction that reveals the half-life of a xenon-124 atom to be 18 sextillion years.
- The half-life of a process is how long it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei present in a sample to decay.
Humans are particularly prone to shiver when a group does or thinks the same thing at the same time.
A few years ago, I proposed that the feeling of cold in one's spine, while for example watching a film or listening to music, corresponds to an event when our vital need for cognition is satisfied.
Certain colors are globally linked to certain feelings, the study reveals.
- Color psychology is often used in marketing to alter your perception of products and services.
- Various studies and experiments across multiple years have given us more insight into the link between personality and color.
- The results of a new study spanning 6 continents (30 nations) shows universal correlations between colors and emotions around the globe.
The root of color psychology<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9e40cf62fa8922fcca6c57e2fcb215b6"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/OM4fXB23pCQ?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>There is a very likely chance you've even been "fooled" by color marketing in the past, or you've chosen one product over another subconsciously due to colors that were designed to influence your emotions.<br></p><p>Companies that want to be known for being dependable often use blue in their logos, for example (Dell, HP, IBM). Companies that want to be perceived as fun and exciting go for a splash of orange (Fanta, Nickelodeon, even Amazon). Green is associated with natural, peaceful emotions and is often used by companies like Whole Foods and Tropicana. </p><p><strong>Your favorite color says a lot about your personality. </strong></p><p>Various studies and experiments across multiple years (<a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/49595886_Personality_Traits_and_Colour_Preferences" target="_blank">2010</a>, <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jopy.12087" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2014</a>, <a href="http://oaji.net/articles/2015/1170-1448038739.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2015</a>, and more recently in <a href="https://www.verywellmind.com/color-psychology-2795824#modern-research-on-color-psychology" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2019</a>) have given us more insight into the link between your personality and your favorite color.</p><p>Red, for example, is considered a bold color and is associated with feelings such as excitement, passion, anger, danger, energy, and love. The personality traits of this color might be someone who is bold, a little impulsive, and who loves adventure. </p><p>Orange, on the other hand, is considered representative of creativity, happiness, and freedom. The personality traits of this color can be fun, playful, cheerful, nurturing, and productive. Read more about color psychology and personalities <a href="https://bigthink.com/mind-brain/color-personality-psychology?rebelltitem=2#rebelltitem2" target="_self">here</a>.</p>
Study reveals which colors best suit which emotions around the globe<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDYzMTk5OS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyODc4OTg5OH0.bY-pu-MFNivdJLDJuBp9TBKrhwuy7hngUa1aIWxQMVw/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C93%2C0%2C94&height=700" id="33fff" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="1a5d7bb00dac94bd6201616789fb4882" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="concept of color psychology how colors make us feel color emotions" />
Certain colors are globally ties to certain emotions, the study reveals.
Image by agsandrew on Shutterstock<p>In this particular survey, participants were asked to fill out an online questionnaire which involved assigning 20 emotions to 12 different color terms. They were also asked to specify the intensity with which they associated the color term with the emotion.</p><p><strong>Certain colors are globally linked to certain emotions, the study reveals.</strong></p><p>The results of this study showed a few definite correlations between colors and emotions throughout the globe. Red, for example, is the only color that is strongly associated with both negative (anger) and positive (love) feelings. Brown, on the other end of the spectrum, is the color that triggers the fewest emotions globally.<br></p><p>The color white is closely associated with sadness in China, while purple is what is closely associated with sadness in Greece. This can be traced back to the roots of each culture, with white being worn at funerals in China and dark purple being the Greek Orthodox Church's color of mourning. </p><p>Yellow is more associated with joy, specifically in countries that see less sunshine. Meanwhile, its association with joy is weaker in areas that have greater exposure to sunshine. </p><p><a href="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200910150247.htm" target="_blank">According to Dr. Oberfeld-Twistel</a>, it is difficult to say exactly what the causes for global similarities and differences are. "There is a range of possible influencing factors: language, culture, religion, climate, the history of human development, the human perceptual system."</p>