Writing a Good Screenplay Is an Art—And Also a Craft
Danny\r\n Rubin: I’ve always done writing as part of everything that I’ve \r\ndone in the past, just various creative enterprises. I write songs and \r\ndo music and write essays and short plays and sketch comedy and all \r\nthese things and during my 20’s, I was living in Chicago and probably \r\npursuing everything creatively that I could think of all at once and \r\nwaiting for something to choose me.
I got a job right out of \r\ngraduate school working for a local television show in Chicago and so I \r\nwas doing writing for that, but I was also writing music and I was doing\r\n a little bit of performing. I was writing plays and also performing on\r\n stage and doing the music thing and playing coffee houses and blues \r\nclubs and, ultimately, I was just waiting for something to choose me and\r\n what happened was somebody suggested, “Well, why don’t you write a \r\nscreenplay for a movie?” and I thought, “I like movies,” and so I wrote \r\none and l looked at and said, “That was fun.” I didn’t like that \r\nparticular screenplay and didn’t do anything with it, but then I wrote \r\nanother one and sent it out and somebody bought it and all of a sudden I\r\n was screenwriter and I thought, “That was easy. I’ll do this.” And \r\nso, I just kept doing it and I haven’t had any reason to do anything \r\nelse since.
Question: What’s the hardest part about \r\nwriting a good screenplay?
Danny Rubin: Making it \r\ngood, that good part. Writing a screenplay is not so hard. That’s all \r\nabout knowing where the margins are. Writing a good screenplay is \r\nalmost impossible.
I think it - part of it has to do with being \r\noriginal, trying to do something that feels fresh when there have been \r\nso many movies made and also particularly in Hollywood, a tendency to \r\ntry and remake the same movies over and over again. So, it’s writing a \r\nmovie that’s original that becomes really difficult and there's \r\nsomething very formal about the enterprise of writing a screenplay. It \r\ncan’t be longer than two hours. So, the kind of story you tell, \r\nwhatever it is, it has to be as engaging and as exciting as possible \r\nwithin that one and a half to two hour period and that forces certain \r\nkind of conventions on you. Places where we really want to have them \r\ngripped in the story by here or else they’re going to leave or change \r\nthe channel or walk out of the theater.
There's a certain kind of\r\n efficiency built into screenwriting that’s very elegant, but that makes\r\n it as hard to craft as a very finely crafted piece of sculpture, \r\nfurniture, something like that. And making it all come alive when you \r\njust start putting together all the pieces of things that you visualize \r\nthat would wonderful. It all seems in your mind to be wonderful, but \r\nthen when you look at what you’ve created on the page it’s like a \r\nFrankenstein’s monster. You’ve got a head, you’ve got the hands, you \r\ngot the feet, you’ve got the body. You’ve thought of everything and \r\nwhen you look at it, it’s still just a bunch of dead meat lying there on\r\n the table and you're trying to get a pulse to go through the thing. \r\nWhat makes it real?
It’s complete artifice. It’s completely \r\nmade up. It’s all these things from your head and your desires and \r\ndreams and it isn’t real yet and somehow, something has to spark off the\r\n page that makes you to join the life that’s going on in this world that\r\n you’ve created. And to make that smooth life feel real when the whole \r\nthing is artifice. It all has agenda. It’s all people you’ve created \r\nand worlds that don’t even exist. Making that feel real, that’s the \r\nabsolute impossible thing. Being original, making it feel real and \r\nmaking it all fit. It’s the easiest thing in the world and it’s \r\nabsolutely impossible.
Question: Do you consider \r\nscreenwriting an art form?
Danny Rubin: \r\nScreenwriting is an art form, but it’s also a craft. It’s both of those\r\n things. It’s a commercial art and both of those things you need to be \r\ngood at. If you just know the craft and you don’t have any sense of the\r\n art, that means you don’t have anything to say and you don’t have an \r\ninteresting way to say it.
If it’s all art and no craft, then \r\nyou’ve got these great ideas, but you aren’t able to articulate them in a\r\n way that makes it all work out as a good blueprint for building a great\r\n movie. So, I definitely think there's a great deal of artistry \r\ninvolved. I’ve never seen a good screenplay that was nothing but craft.
Recorded on May 12, 2010
Interviewed by Paul Hoffman
Screenwriting is like creating Frankenstein’s monster; assembling body parts is easy, but giving them life is "almost impossible."
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It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
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