The Helpless Y Chromosome
Question: Is the Y chromosome prone to mutations?
Marianne Legato: The Y chromosome is definitely unique among all the chromosomes. Over most of its extent, it can’t exchange with its partner the X chromosome to repair its deficiencies or mutations in DNA. It’s learned to repair itself in an interesting and unique way. The issues with the Y chromosome are that they are exposed to environmental toxins because they are housed outside the body in the scrotal sack. Many millions are produced every day and, therefore, mutations are far more frequent in the Y chromosome than in the X or indeed in any of the other chromosomes. So the male drives evolutionary development because of this extraordinary proliferation of mutations that are characteristic of sperm and the Y chromosome.
The masculine chromosome is unique in its inability to repair itself, making it exceptionally prone to mutation and pollution.
That's a sharp increase from the 1960s when it took the same share of scientists an average of 35 years to drop out of academia.
- The study tracked the careers of more than 100,000 scientists over 50 years.
- The results showed career lifespans are shrinking, and fewer scientists are getting credited as the lead author on scientific papers.
- Scientists are still pursuing careers in the private sector, however there are key differences between research conducted in academia and industry.
We have to practice doing nothing more often.
- Constantly being busy is neurologically taxing and emotionally draining.
- In his new book, Jon Kabat-Zinn writes that you're doing a disservice to others by always being busy.
- Busyness is often an excuse for the discomfort of being alone with your own thoughts.
The bold technique involves surgically implanting a so-called microneedle patch directly onto the heart.
- Heart attacks leave scar tissue on the heart, which can reduce the organ's ability to pump blood throughout the body.
- The microneedle patch aims to deliver therapeutic cells directly to the damaged tissue.
- It hasn't been tested on humans yet, but the method has shown promising signs in research on animals.
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