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International Poker Champion
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Former CIA Clandestine Operative
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Chris Hadfield
Retired Canadian Astronaut & Author
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Seth Berkley On Animal Testing

Seth Berkley:  HIV is a disease of humans. Even though it’s a virus that came out of chimpanzees, chimpanzees don’t get sick from it. So at the end of the day, the only way we’re ever going to be able to create a vaccine or even create better drugs is to test it in humans. It has to be. Now, up until that point, you can do a lot of studies to presume to see if they’re safe in animals. You can look for protection in animals. You can study them in detail for toxicity. You can do all kinds of things to make sure it’s safe but at the end, it has to be in humans to find protection. If we could create an animal model that was validated -- what do I mean by that? -- that we really knew correlated exactly with humans, then we could test them in animals. But until you have that animal model that’s validated, humans are the only place you can go, so it has to be tested in humans. For me, there’s not really an ethical challenge. In a sense, what we’re trying to do is create better drugs, better treatments, vaccines ultimately that are going to protect people, that are going to protect large amounts of the population. So what we have to do is be careful that there’s informed consent, be careful that we work with people that understand that there’s going to be benefit for them if these come out. But at the end of the day, it’s amazing how many people have volunteered for these trials and the interest they have to do that in an altruistic fashion but also ultimately in a fashion to help themselves as well. So there hasn’t been really a problem in terms of getting people to engage and volunteer for this.

The only way we're ever going to be able to create a vaccine or even create better drugs is to test it in humans.

Live on Tuesday | Personal finance in the COVID-19 era

Sallie Krawcheck and Bob Kulhan will be talking money, jobs, and how the pandemic will disproportionally affect women's finances.

Bubonic plague case reported in China

Health officials in China reported that a man was infected with bubonic plague, the infectious disease that caused the Black Death.

(Photo by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention/Getty Images)
Coronavirus
  • The case was reported in the city of Bayannur, which has issued a level-three plague prevention warning.
  • Modern antibiotics can effectively treat bubonic plague, which spreads mainly by fleas.
  • Chinese health officials are also monitoring a newly discovered type of swine flu that has the potential to develop into a pandemic virus.
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Education vs. learning: How semantics can trigger a mind shift

The word "learning" opens up space for more people, places, and ideas.

Future of Learning
  • The terms 'education' and 'learning' are often used interchangeably, but there is a cultural connotation to the former that can be limiting. Education naturally links to schooling, which is only one form of learning.
  • Gregg Behr, founder and co-chair of Remake Learning, believes that this small word shift opens up the possibilities in terms of how and where learning can happen. It also becomes a more inclusive practice, welcoming in a larger, more diverse group of thinkers.
  • Post-COVID, the way we think about what learning looks like will inevitably change, so it's crucial to adjust and begin building the necessary support systems today.
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How DNA revealed the woolly mammoth's fate – and what it teaches us today

Scientists uncovered the secrets of what drove some of the world's last remaining woolly mammoths to extinction.

Ethan Miller/Getty Images
Surprising Science

Every summer, children on the Alaskan island of St Paul cool down in Lake Hill, a crater lake in an extinct volcano – unaware of the mysteries that lie beneath.

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Why is everyone so selfish? Science explains

The coronavirus pandemic has brought out the perception of selfishness among many.

Credit: Adobe Stock, Olivier Le Moal.
Personal Growth
  • Selfish behavior has been analyzed by philosophers and psychologists for centuries.
  • New research shows people may be wired for altruistic behavior and get more benefits from it.
  • Times of crisis tend to increase self-centered acts.
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