Self-Motivation
David Goggins
Former Navy Seal
Career Development
Bryan Cranston
Actor
Critical Thinking
Liv Boeree
International Poker Champion
Emotional Intelligence
Amaryllis Fox
Former CIA Clandestine Operative
Management
Chris Hadfield
Retired Canadian Astronaut & Author
Learn
from the world's big
thinkers
Start Learning

Seth Berkley On AIDS Today

Seth Berkley:  It’s interesting. The AIDS epidemic, there’s been some perception that it’s just a chronic disease now. You can just take some medicines and that’s it. Well, thank God there are a lot of reasonably good medicines now to treat it. There’s lots of first-line and second-line drugs and so in essence, people can treat the infection, but people who get treated don’t have a normal life expectancy and some people can’t tolerate the medicines. The other thing is, because the virus is always mutating, you end up with resistance, so there’s a lot of problems with the existing paradigm. On top of that, most people still today don’t know they’re infected who are infected, so the epidemic continues to spread. Right now, for every person that is put on treatment, we have four new infections and so the epidemic is continuing to outpace that effort to go ahead and treat it. In the developed world, places like the United States, it hasn’t gone away; it’s been pretty steady and fairly significant. There’s been somewhere around 40,000 new infections a year; actually, the number’s probably closer to 60, not that it leaped up, but just because probably some problems with measurement. But in the rest of the world, there’s something like two and a half million new infections a year so it’s still growing and still a big problem.

Question: Is AIDS still a death sentence?

Seth Berkley:  You are likely to die of HIV and its related conditions if you develop HIV. Luckily, with treatment now, you can go for a long period without getting sick and dying. How long that can be, we don’t know. Some people tolerate the medicines really well. They might approach a normal life expectancy. Some people take the medicines for a few years, have problems with tolerating them, get sick from the medicines, have viruses that break through and will die from it. So at the moment, we haven’t had a long enough experience with all these medicines to talk about what the tale is but we think that you’re getting something like seven to eight years of additional life expectancy on these drugs, which is a big deal for what was a 100% fatal disease in the past.

Question: Are you worried the world is less vigilant?

Seth Berkley:  There has been a lot of recidivism and that’s in behavior change. Some of the extraordinary things that happened early on when people realized that this was a terrible disease and perhaps the most important part of that was seeing people around them get sick and die; that’s an enormous motivator so we had enormous changes in behavior. There has been some recidivism particularly among young people who aren’t seeing the epidemic in its big way, seeing all the things that are going on. So that is a problem. In terms of the disease itself, it is still a big problem globally -- 33 million infected people; still, as I said, large numbers of deaths going on around the world. So I think it’s not any sense of less of a problem. The issue is, is that people perceive it differently because of the new drugs that have been approved.

Some today view AIDS only as a chronic disease.

The “new normal” paradox: What COVID-19 has revealed about higher education

Higher education faces challenges that are unlike any other industry. What path will ASU, and universities like ASU, take in a post-COVID world?

Photo: Luis Robayo/AFP via Getty Images
Sponsored by Charles Koch Foundation
  • Everywhere you turn, the idea that coronavirus has brought on a "new normal" is present and true. But for higher education, COVID-19 exposes a long list of pernicious old problems more than it presents new problems.
  • It was widely known, yet ignored, that digital instruction must be embraced. When combined with traditional, in-person teaching, it can enhance student learning outcomes at scale.
  • COVID-19 has forced institutions to understand that far too many higher education outcomes are determined by a student's family income, and in the context of COVID-19 this means that lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color will be disproportionately afflicted.
Keep reading Show less

Why is everyone so selfish? Science explains

The coronavirus pandemic has brought out the perception of selfishness among many.

Credit: Adobe Stock, Olivier Le Moal.
Personal Growth
  • Selfish behavior has been analyzed by philosophers and psychologists for centuries.
  • New research shows people may be wired for altruistic behavior and get more benefits from it.
  • Crisis times tend to increase self-centered acts.
Keep reading Show less

How Hemingway felt about fatherhood

Parenting could be a distraction from what mattered most to him: his writing.

Ernest Hemingway Holding His Son 1927 (Wikimedia Commons)
Culture & Religion

Ernest Hemingway was affectionately called “Papa," but what kind of dad was he?

Keep reading Show less

How DNA revealed the woolly mammoth's fate – and what it teaches us today

Scientists uncovered the secrets of what drove some of the world's last remaining woolly mammoths to extinction.

Ethan Miller/Getty Images
Surprising Science

Every summer, children on the Alaskan island of St Paul cool down in Lake Hill, a crater lake in an extinct volcano – unaware of the mysteries that lie beneath.

Keep reading Show less

The biology of aliens: How much do we know?

Hollywood has created an idea of aliens that doesn't match the science.

Videos
  • Ask someone what they think aliens look like and you'll probably get a description heavily informed by films and pop culture. The existence of life beyond our planet has yet to be confirmed, but there are clues as to the biology of extraterrestrials in science.
  • "Don't give them claws," says biologist E.O. Wilson. "Claws are for carnivores and you've got to be an omnivore to be an E.T. There just isn't enough energy available in the next trophic level down to maintain big populations and stable populations that can evolve civilization."
  • In this compilation, Wilson, theoretical physicist Michio Kaku, Bill Nye, and evolutionary biologist Jonathan B. Losos explain why aliens don't look like us and why Hollywood depictions are mostly inaccurate.
Keep reading Show less
Quantcast