Russell Simmons on the Death of Hip-Hop
Russell Simmons is an entrepreneur, author, activist and philanthropist who has used his boundless creativity and eye for talent to launch superstar careers and groundbreaking enterprises in arenas as varied as music, film, television, fashion, comedy, poetry, digital platforms, Broadway plays and finance. Simmons’ achievements have earned him a spot on a USA Today list of the world’s 25 most influential people of the past 25 years, as well as a fortune that places him among the wealthiest figures in hip-hop history. Underlying all his trend-setting endeavors are a passionate sense of social responsibility and an unshakable belief in justice for all people, regardless of race, class, religion or sexual orientation. After having produced or managed artists such as Kurtis Blow, Run DMC, Whodini, Jimmy Spicer amongst many others, Simmons and producer Rick Rubin joined forces founding Def Jam Recordings. During his tenure as Chairman of the record label beginning in 1984, he helped sign acts from the Beastie Boys, Public Enemy, LL Cool J all the way to Jay Z and Kanye West.
Simmons is widely known as a champion of social justice and equality for those who are discriminated against for any reason. A longtime advocate for LGBT rights, he was honored with the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation (GLAAD) Media Award. Simmons also has worked to foster racial and religious reconciliation through the Foundation for Ethnic Understanding, which supports interfaith communications between religious and ethnic leaders in 40 countries. He remains a staunch supporter of the Occupy movement, which is dedicated to giving the people a stronger voice than corporations.
Also a devout vegan and strong advocate for animal rights and received the PETA Man of the Year Award in 2011. Simmons’ many charitable endeavors include the Diamond Empowerment Fund, a global organization that supports educational initiatives for disadvantaged people in diamond-producing African nations and Rush Philanthropic Arts Foundation, which gives young people the opportunity to create and appreciate art. Simmons has written three New York Times best-selling author on happiness and well-being: Do You! 12 Laws to Access the Power in You to Achieve Happiness and Success, Super Rich: A Guide to Having It All, and Success Through Stillness: Meditation Made Simple. Simmons grew up in Queens and has two daughters, Ming Lee and Aoki Lee.
Russell Simmons: Hip-hop’s been dying or dead every single year since its inception. So as long as it’s eight of the top eight downloads last week, I feel it’s not dead. It still has a tremendous influence in American pop culture; it’s still the greatest brand building community in the world. They have all kinds of inspiration and influence for American mainstream, they made the President by shifting race dialogue, when Run DMZ got on MTV there were no black people at all except Michael Jackson, and they changed a lot in America and the way people see each other. Jay-Z’s not dead, as far as I can tell, artists last. LL Cool J is on a number one show. Ice-T’s not dead; he’s 45.\r\n
I’m 51, I’ve got new businesses that are hip hop-related, and they’re growing. I don’t feel hip hop is dead. I don’t feel there are any good signs that would say that. I guess young people do download quicker than people who might buy a Whitney Houston record or something, but that’s just what they do. Hip-hop is being consumed as much now as ever and that’s an important statement and it has as much affect on American mainstream culture now as ever, and that’s another good statement. So, it’s hard to predict the death of a cultural phenomenon that’s transformed America in so many ways.\r\n
Recorded on October 27, 2009
Between Jay-Z, LL Cool J and Ice-T, no signs point downwards.
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"Nothing but naked people: fat ones, thin ones, old, young…"
"The Yellow Sands", 1888, John Reinhard Weguelin; source: Wikimedia Commons<h3>Naked revolution</h3><p>Yet long before anyone knew about beach fashion, naturism was trendy. Bathing naked in the sea was going on in England as early as 1840. However, during the reign of Queen Victoria, this pleasure was outlawed. But it popped up again among the conservative Germans. In 1898, the first Naturist Club was founded in Essen and in 1900 the Wandering Birds group (<em>Wandervögel</em>) was scouring the country for uninhabited places and naked sunbathing. In the same year, Heinrich Pudor wrote <em>The C</em><em>ult of </em><em>the </em><em>Nud</em><em>e</em>, winning the hearts of contemporary supporters of naturism.</p><p>In the 1920s, on the back of this, members of the Movement for Natural Healing (<em>Naturheilbewegung</em>) organized naked sunbathing for the improvement of health. Persuaded by Pudor's theory of the healing properties of the sun and wind, which could be absorbed through the skin, they launched the naked revolution.</p><p>Pudor's book became the naturists' manifesto and soon after, not far from Hamburg, the Free Body Culture (<em>Freikörperkultur</em>, or FKK) movement was founded. This spread through other German centres and brought together thousands of people. The FKK still operates under the same name today.</p><p>The cult of the naked body even wrote itself into the ideology of fascist Germany, which advocated a pure, Aryan race. But in 1933, Hermann Göring issued an order that defined nudity as "the greatest threat to the German soul" and, with that, criminalized naturist organizations. But this wasn't the end of the movement. The naturists went underground, continuing their activities under the guise of improving physical fitness.</p><p>In 1936, the idea was even floated of having a naturist display to open the Berlin Olympic Games. It was quickly dropped. Despite this, in 1939 the naturists managed to organize their own Games in the Swiss village of Thielle.</p>
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Crows have their own version of the human cerebral cortex.
Action-packed pallia<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDQ0NzkyMS9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYxNzk1NzM1OH0.Tjb3zulFW2gwhteR124F9HGbmdnCqNqQFOBQouieTJ8/img.png?width=980" id="2bbc9" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2907e4035e553565f4446e968ee73d92" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Fun with Ozzie and Glenn<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDQ0Njk2MS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYxMzY4Njc2MX0.ZgpsPMCK6qOj2o0kErvVPjdua1EnMCIwCuHHGrb3LiY/img.jpg?width=980" id="acbeb" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2e286fecbb228a5ca8aa26fcd19f95a2" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="two crows in a tree" />
Ozzie and Glenn not pictured
Credit: narubono/Unsplash<p>The kind of higher intelligence crows exhibited in the new research is similar to the way we solve problems. We catalog relevant knowledge and then explore different combinations of what we know to arrive at an action or solution.</p><p>The researchers, led by neurobiologist <a href="https://homepages.uni-tuebingen.de/andreas.nieder/" target="_blank">Andreas Nieder</a> of the University of Tübingen in Germany, trained two carrion crows (<em>Corvus corone</em>), Ozzie and Glenn.</p><p>The crows were trained to watch for a flash — which didn't always appear — and then peck at a red or blue target to register whether or not a flash of light was seen. Ozzie and Glenn were also taught to understand a changing "rule key" that specified whether red or blue signified the presence of a flash with the other color signifying that no flash occurred.</p><p>In each round of a test, after a flash did or didn't appear, the crows were presented a rule key describing the current meaning of the red and blue targets, after which they pecked their response.</p><p>This sequence prevented the crows from simply rehearsing their response on auto-pilot, so to speak. In each test, they had to take the entire process from the top, seeing a flash or no flash, and then figuring out which target to peck.</p><p>As all this occurred, the researchers monitored their neuronal activity. When Ozzie or Glenn saw a flash, sensory neurons fired and then stopped as the bird worked out which target to peck. When there was no flash, no firing of the sensory neurons was observed before the crow paused to figure out the correct target.</p><p>Nieder's interpretation of this sequence is that Ozzie or Glenn had to see or not see a flash, deliberately note that there had or hadn't been a flash — exhibiting self-awareness of what had just been experienced — and then, in a few moments, connect that recollection to their knowledge of the current rule key before pecking the correct target.</p><p>During those few moments after the sensory neuron activity had died down, Nieder reported activity among a large population of neurons as the crows put the pieces together preparing to report what they'd seen. Among the busy areas in the crows' brains during this phase of the sequence was, not surprisingly, the pallium.</p><p>Overall, the study may eliminate the layered cerebral cortex as a requirement for higher intelligence. As we learn more about the intelligence of crows, we can at least say with some certainty that it would be wise to avoid <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2008/08/26/science/26crow.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">angering one</a>.</p>