Re: How do you contribute?
Dan Glickman served as the 26th United States Secretary of Agriculture, a post he held from 1995 until 2001. Previously he was a Democratic representative for Kansas in Congress for 18 years. Currently he is the president of the Motion Picture Association of America, which is comprised of the "big six" Hollywood studios. Glickman was born in Kansas in 1944 and began his career as a lawyer. He was one of the managers appointed by the House of Representatives in 1986 to conduct the impeachment proceedings against Harry E. Claiborne, a Nevada judge. Glickman has more recently served as director of the Institute of Politics at Harvard University.
Question: What impact does your work have on the world?
Dan Glickman: Well it has a lot of impact on the world. And the first place . . . America is known throughout the world largely by its film and television stars, and sports heroes. I mean you’d like to think that the politicians have that kind of impact, but the truth of the matter is that this is an industry that America has become identified with over a period of many, many, years. One of the reasons why, to be honest with you, is there aren’t very many other places that produce very many movies or television shows. I mean they produce some in other countries, but our industry is still the dominant force in terms of amount of product that’s out there. So people see often what we’re like by reason of the movies. And I recall that whenever Arnold Schwarzenegger used to travel around the world – this was before he became governor of California – he would be swarmed by people throughout the world wherever he’d go largely because of this factor. And so good and bad, America is known often by its entertainment product. And I think it’s more good than bad to be honest with you. And one evidence of that is in the last few years when we’ve been fighting this war in Iraq, and when there’s a lot of negative feelings about American foreign policy in the world, sales of American movies overseas have not been appreciably hurt by any of that. That is this overseas sales of American film track, the domestic sales of American films notwithstanding that a lot of people may not like our foreign policy. So that’s a very good sign that not only do people like our movies, but they still like us, America as a country.
Recorded on: Jul 7 2007
The world continues to love our movies, even if they hate our foreign policy.
The Spilhaus Projection may be more than 75 years old, but it has never been more relevant than today.
- Athelstan Spilhaus designed an oceanic thermometer to fight the Nazis, and the weather balloon that got mistaken for a UFO in Roswell.
- In 1942, he produced a world map with a unique perspective, presenting the world's oceans as one body of water.
- The Spilhaus Projection could be just what the oceans need to get the attention their problems deserve.
It's just the current cycle that involves opiates, but methamphetamine, cocaine, and others have caused the trajectory of overdoses to head the same direction
- It appears that overdoses are increasing exponentially, no matter the drug itself
- If the study bears out, it means that even reducing opiates will not slow the trajectory.
- The causes of these trends remain obscure, but near the end of the write-up about the study, a hint might be apparent
Through computationally intensive computer simulations, researchers have discovered that "nuclear pasta," found in the crusts of neutron stars, is the strongest material in the universe.
- The strongest material in the universe may be the whimsically named "nuclear pasta."
- You can find this substance in the crust of neutron stars.
- This amazing material is super-dense, and is 10 billion times harder to break than steel.
Superman is known as the "Man of Steel" for his strength and indestructibility. But the discovery of a new material that's 10 billion times harder to break than steel begs the question—is it time for a new superhero known as "Nuclear Pasta"? That's the name of the substance that a team of researchers thinks is the strongest known material in the universe.
Unlike humans, when stars reach a certain age, they do not just wither and die, but they explode, collapsing into a mass of neurons. The resulting space entity, known as a neutron star, is incredibly dense. So much so that previous research showed that the surface of a such a star would feature amazingly strong material. The new research, which involved the largest-ever computer simulations of a neutron star's crust, proposes that "nuclear pasta," the material just under the surface, is actually stronger.
The competition between forces from protons and neutrons inside a neutron star create super-dense shapes that look like long cylinders or flat planes, referred to as "spaghetti" and "lasagna," respectively. That's also where we get the overall name of nuclear pasta.
Caplan & Horowitz/arXiv
Diagrams illustrating the different types of so-called nuclear pasta.
The researchers' computer simulations needed 2 million hours of processor time before completion, which would be, according to a press release from McGill University, "the equivalent of 250 years on a laptop with a single good GPU." Fortunately, the researchers had access to a supercomputer, although it still took a couple of years. The scientists' simulations consisted of stretching and deforming the nuclear pasta to see how it behaved and what it would take to break it.
While they were able to discover just how strong nuclear pasta seems to be, no one is holding their breath that we'll be sending out missions to mine this substance any time soon. Instead, the discovery has other significant applications.
One of the study's co-authors, Matthew Caplan, a postdoctoral research fellow at McGill University, said the neutron stars would be "a hundred trillion times denser than anything on earth." Understanding what's inside them would be valuable for astronomers because now only the outer layer of such starts can be observed.
"A lot of interesting physics is going on here under extreme conditions and so understanding the physical properties of a neutron star is a way for scientists to test their theories and models," Caplan added. "With this result, many problems need to be revisited. How large a mountain can you build on a neutron star before the crust breaks and it collapses? What will it look like? And most importantly, how can astronomers observe it?"
Another possibility worth studying is that, due to its instability, nuclear pasta might generate gravitational waves. It may be possible to observe them at some point here on Earth by utilizing very sensitive equipment.
The team of scientists also included A. S. Schneider from California Institute of Technology and C. J. Horowitz from Indiana University.
Check out the study "The elasticity of nuclear pasta," published in Physical Review Letters.
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