Pakistan Wants to Control Afghanistan
Jere Van Dyk: No. I think that when you look at the \r\nhistory of Pakistan, when it was formed in 1947, the only country that \r\nvoted against its being allowed entry into the United Nations was \r\nAfghanistan, and that had to do with the border region. In 1948 when \r\nPakistan was trying to wrest Kashmir from India, it took men from the \r\ntribal areas, Pashtuns, and used them to fight against India as a \r\nguerrilla force. And they almost captured Srinigar, the capital.
Realizing\r\n the power of these Pashtuns, of these tribal men, their fierceness as \r\nwarriors, their tradition as fighters, and their belief in Islam, they \r\nused them to create—they were the vanguard in the beginnings and the \r\nleadership of the Mujahadeen, America's and Pakistan's ally against the \r\nSoviet Union in the 1980s. When I returned from Afghanistan in the \r\n1980s and worked as a consultant for the State Department, and the \r\nNational Security Council, in the Reagan Administration, the United \r\nStates and Pakistan took these Mujahadeen, these men that had been \r\nbrought up to power, and they created a government called the "Afghan \r\nMujahadeen Government in Exile." I was their guide when they came to \r\nNew York to present their credentials to the United Nations.
When\r\n they—when the Mujahadeen disintegrated and began to fight amongst \r\nthemselves, out of this came the Taliban. The Taliban in a great many \r\nways are the sons, and the grandsons, and the younger brothers of the \r\nmost militant members of the Mujahadeen. One of the most prominent \r\nmembers of the Taliban, a man named Hakani, who I lived with in the \r\n1980's, who had an Arab visit... an Egyptian Army officer come and stay \r\nwith us, who I later figured out was one of the very beginnings of al \r\nQaeda.
When this occurred, I began to realize the close ties \r\nbetween al Qaeda and the Mujahadeen; this man today, Hakani, is one of \r\nthe leaders of the Taliban. Only three countries, when the Taliban took\r\n over Afghanistan, granted it diplomatic recognition. Principal among \r\nthem: Pakistan. Secondly, Saudi Arabia. Thirdly, the United Arab \r\nEmirates. No other country in the world.
Pakistan's foreign \r\npolicy is to prevent itself from being surrounded by India, afraid that \r\nIndia would use Afghanistan to surround Pakistan. It wants to... In \r\n2006, Major General Shaukat Sultan, presidential spokesman for President\r\n Pervez Musharref told me: "All our invasions come from the West." \r\nPashtuns feel that the lands inside Pakistan that go all the way to the \r\nIndus River are theirs. They do not accept the Durand Line, the border \r\nbetween Afghanistan and Pakistan. Not one single legislature in the \r\nhistory of Afghanistan has ever accepted this border.
The \r\nPakistani army is comprised of Punjabis, the Pakistani—it's led by \r\nPunjabis. The main ethnic —the most populous, and the richest, the most\r\n accomplished ethnic group in Pakistan—the bureaucracy of Pakistan is \r\nrun by Punjabis. They are at war with the Pashtuns to prevent the \r\nPashtuns from going back and taking the lands that were once theirs that\r\n stretch all the way to the Indus River.
In a meeting I had with \r\nPresident Karzai he lamented the fact that so many Pashtun lands are now\r\n in the hands of Pakistan. So Pakistan has a geopolitical goal of \r\nsurrounding India, to prevent itself from being reconquered by the \r\nPashtuns, and thirdly it wants to, in my view, recreate the Mughal \r\nMuslim empire... thereby establishing trade relationships with Sunni \r\nCentral Asia, taking over Afghanistan, to expand it's reach, and finally\r\n in order to gain access to the most important resource it needs and is \r\ndesperately in shortage of: water. All water comes from—the main water \r\nsources of Pakistan come from India, and they come from Afghanistan.
Question: How worried should we be about Pakistan’s nuclear weapons?
Jere Van Dyk: There have been many reports of how the \r\nUnited States has contingency plans, we have to take over those nuclear \r\narms if something were to go terribly awry in Pakistan. Those arms \r\nthemselves cannot be directed against the United States. Pakistan is \r\ntoo far away from the United States. It's not the Soviet Union, which \r\nhad missiles that were capable of reaching our soil.
The fact \r\nthat members of the Pakistani military are deeply religious and would be\r\n aligned with al Qaeda and would try to help those people... help al \r\nQaeda get those weapons and access to them and therefore help them with \r\nall their abilities to reach the West, yes, I do think that that's a \r\nthreat. But I think it's a long-term threat. I personally don't worry \r\nabout that. I think that a far greater threat is the continuation of \r\nthe war on television, which radicalizes young men in the West like this\r\n man who went and tried to do what he did in Times Square. I think that\r\n is a much greater threat to the United States in the short term than \r\nany nuclear arms falling into al Qaeda.
Recorded June 29. 2010
Interviewed by Max Miller
The U.S. should be wary of its "ally" Pakistan, says Van Dyk.
Learn how to redesign your job for maximum reward.
- Broaching the question "What is my purpose?" is daunting – it's a grandiose idea, but research can make it a little more approachable if work is where you find your meaning. It turns out you can redesign your job to have maximum purpose.
- There are 3 ways people find meaning at work, what Aaron Hurst calls the three elevations of impact. About a third of the population finds meaning at an individual level, from seeing the direct impact of their work on other people. Another third of people find their purpose at an organizational level. And the last third of people find meaning at a social level.
- "What's interesting about these three elevations of impact is they enable us to find meaning in any job if we approach it the right way. And it shows how accessible purpose can be when we take responsibility for it in our work," says Hurst.
Erik Verlinde has been compared to Einstein for completely rethinking the nature of gravity.
- The Dutch physicist Erik Verlinde's hypothesis describes gravity as an "emergent" force not fundamental.
- The scientist thinks his ideas describe the universe better than existing models, without resorting to "dark matter".
- While some question his previous papers, Verlinde is reworking his ideas as a full-fledged theory.
TuSimple, an autonomous trucking company, has also engaged in test programs with the United States Postal Service and Amazon.
PAUL RATJE / Contributor
- This week, UPS announced that it's working with autonomous trucking startup TuSimple on a pilot project to deliver cargo in Arizona using self-driving trucks.
- UPS has also acquired a minority stake in TuSimple.
- TuSimple hopes its trucks will be fully autonomous — without a human driver — by late 2020, though regulatory questions remain.