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Ask a NASA astronomer! Why is there zero gravity in space?
Astronauts aren’t floating in space, they’re free falling—and so are you. Here's the amazing science behind so-called zero gravity.
Dr. Michelle Thaller is an astronomer who studies binary stars and the life cycles of stars. She is Assistant Director of Science Communication at NASA. She went to college at Harvard University, completed a post-doctoral research fellowship at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, Calif. then started working for the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's (JPL) Spitzer Space Telescope. After a hugely successful mission, she moved on to NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), in the Washington D.C. area. In her off-hours often puts on about 30lbs of Elizabethan garb and performs intricate Renaissance dances. For more information, visit NASA.
Michelle Thaller: Joshua, you ask a really great question, “Why is there no gravity in space?” I bet you’ve seen pictures of the astronauts up in the space station and they’re floating around as if there’s no gravity at all. This is actually a really interesting misconception about what’s going on with the astronauts. And it gets to one of my favorite questions in all of astronomy, and that is: what is an orbit? What’s happening when astronauts are orbiting the Earth? And why does it appear like there’s no gravity in space?
So, to talk about why this is kind of a misconception, the astronauts are about 200 miles above the surface of the Earth in the space station; the space station orbits around us about once every 90 minutes. It’s not that they’re so far away from the Earth that there’s no gravity—in fact, if you built a skyscraper that was 200 miles tall and you were up on one of those top floors you might weigh a tiny little bit less, but you probably weigh at least about 80 percent what you normally would. You’re really not that much farther away from the Earth. So it’s not that they’re weightless because they’re in space and far away from the Earth, they’re actually close enough to the Earth to feel the gravitational pull of the Earth itself. So what’s going on? Why are they floating around?
Well, this is what an orbit really is. We have to get spacecraft going very, very fast to put them into orbit. That’s why we put them on rockets. Rockets launch spacecraft and get them going very, very fast, and if you’re in orbit where the space station is, you’re traveling at about 17,000 miles an hour.
Now, what happens to those astronauts is that they’re going very, very fast but they’re actually freely falling towards the Earth. The Earth has gravity, and that gravity is pulling them down just the same as what would happen as if you dropped a ball. If you dropped a ball it would fall to the floor. The same thing is happening to the astronauts; they are falling towards the surface of the Earth.
But here’s a cool thing: they’re going so fast they keep missing the Earth as they fall. And that’s the definition of an orbit.
Now think about it this way: I talked about dropping a ball and the ball just falls straight down; what would happen if I put the ball in a little cannon and shot it out? The ball would start to drop towards the Earth the minute it left the cannon, but the cannon has given it some velocity, and so the ball might go a hundred yards, right? It might actually go a hundred yards before it fell because the cannon gave it that velocity.
Now, let’s take an even bigger cannon, let’s take a huge cannon that can shoot things many, many miles. So you shoot the ball out, the ball is still falling freely towards the Earth all the time, but now it goes farther because you’ve given it more velocity. And maybe with a really big cannon, you can shoot a ball a hundred miles.
What about with a rocket? With a rocket, you could get something going so fast, up to 17,000 miles an hour, that as it fell freely towards Earth, Earth would keep curving away under it and it would keep missing it.
That’s what an orbit is, and that’s why you need a rocket to get into orbit. You need to get yourself going so fast that, as you fall back towards Earth, you keep missing it.
So the astronauts are not weightless because there’s no gravity in space; the astronauts are falling the same way a skydiver is falling freely through space, it’s just that they’re going so fast they keep missing the Earth.
They are all the time falling towards the Earth going fast enough that they keep missing it.
Everything that’s in orbit around anything else is doing the same thing. Right now you and I are falling freely towards the sun, but the Earth is moving, actually at about 30,000 miles an hour, and we keep missing the sun as we go around it, and that means we’re in orbit around the sun.
The moon is in orbit around the Earth. It’s falling towards the Earth, it’s just traveling so fast it keeps missing it. You’ve asked an excellent question. Everything in space that is orbiting is freely falling under gravity, it’s just going too fast to ever hit anything.
When we launched our 'Ask an astronomer' series with NASA's Michelle Thaller, one set of questions stood out from hundreds, arriving by way of the curious and clever students at Courthill Infant School, Poole, in the south of England. Representing all the aspiring scientists in Dragonflies Class, Joshua, age 4, asked NASA's Michelle Thaller a brilliant question: "Why is there no gravity in space?" Here, Thaller explains the incredible science behind why astronauts appear to float in space, which is an interesting misconception fuelled by the term 'zero gravity'. (In fact, there is a small amount of gravity found everywhere in space, which is why microgravity is a more accurate term.) So what are they doing if not floating? They're actually constantly free falling, says Thaller, and so are you, the person beside you, and the entire planet Earth. It's a high-velocity orbit that allows astronauts to seemingly defy gravity, soaring so fast around the planet that they remain suspended instead of succumbing to Earth's gravitational pull. Michelle Thaller explains the very cool science of how orbits allow astronauts to seemingly defy gravity. You can follow Michelle Thaller on Twitter at @mlthaller.
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- After reanalyzing the bone, and comparing it with fibulas from a human and another dinosaur, a team of scientists confirmed that the dinosaur suffered from the bone cancer osteosarcoma.
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Centrosaurus apertus fibula
Royal Ontario Museum<p>In the recent study, the team used a combination of techniques to analyze the fibula, including taking CT scans, casting the bone and studying thin slices of it under a microscope. The analysis suggested that the dinosaur likely suffered from osteosarcoma, a type of bone cancer that affects modern humans, typically young adults.</p><p>For further evidence, the team compared the damaged fibula to a healthy fibula from a dinosaur of the same species, and also to a fibula that belonged to a 19-year-old human who suffered from osteosarcoma. Both comparisons supported the osteosarcoma diagnosis.</p>
Evans et al.<p style="margin-left: 20px;">"The shin bone shows aggressive cancer at an advanced stage," Evans said in a <a href="https://www.rom.on.ca/en/about-us/newsroom/press-releases/rare-malignant-cancer-diagnosed-in-a-dinosaur" target="_blank">press release</a>. "The cancer would have had crippling effects on the individual and made it very vulnerable to the formidable tyrannosaur predators of the time."</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"The fact that this plant-eating dinosaur lived in a large, protective herd may have allowed it to survive longer than it normally would have with such a devastating disease."</p><p>The fossilized fibula was originally unearthed in a bonebed alongside the remains of dozens of other <em>Centrosaurus </em><em>apertus</em>, suggesting the dinosaur didn't die from cancer, but from a flood that swept it away with its herd.</p>
Dinosaur fibula; the tumor mass is depicted in yellow.
Royal Ontario Museum/McMaster University<p>The new study highlights how modern techniques can help scientists learn more about the evolutionary origins of modern diseases, like cancer. It also shows that dinosaurs suffered through some of the same terrestrial afflictions humans face today.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Dinosaurs can seem like mythical creatures, but they were living, breathing animals that suffered through horrible injuries and diseases," Evans said, "and this discovery certainly makes them more real and helps bring them to life in that respect."</p>
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