How a 27 Year-Old Poet Became the World's First Computer Programmer
Today's video is part of a series on female genius, in proud collaboration with 92Y's 7 Days of Genius Festival.
Maria Popova is a reader and a writer, and writes about what she reads on Brain Pickings (brainpickings.org), which is included in the Library of Congress archive of culturally valuable materials. She has also written for The New York Times, Wired UK, and The Atlantic, among others, and is an MIT Fellow. She is on Twitter @brainpicker.
Maria Popova: Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace, was born Ada Byron on December 10th 1815 and is known today simply as Ada Lovelace. She is celebrated as the world's first computer programmer, the first person to marry the mathematical computational capabilities of machines with the poetic potentialities of symbolic logic. This novel combination was in no small part a function of Ada's unusual upbringing. She was the daughter of a reserved but mathematically gifted mother and the only legitimate child of the great romantic poet and notorious playboy Lord Byron. But Ada never actually met her father; her parents separated when she was only five years old and Lord Byron died in Greece when he was 36 and Ada was eight. Her mother decided to raise Ada all by herself and made a great effort to eradicate any trace of her father's ill influence, which meant removing all poetry from the little girl's life because she believed that poetry was the root of the Lord Byron's vice. So instead she immersed little Ada in math and science from the age of four. And by the time Ada was 12 she had grown fascinated with mechanical engineering. And at the age of 12 she wrote a book titled Flyology, in which she illustrated with her very own diagrams her plan to build a flying apparatus. But even so she felt that the poetic part of her was being repressed by her mother's insistence on science and one day famously quipped, and this is how teenage girls rebelled in the 1800s, she told her mother that she was going to pursue poetical science.
Ada Lovelace struck up a friendship with the brilliant but eccentric Charles Babbage, who at the time was working on strange inventions that one day would have him celebrated as the father of the computer. Their collaboration was an extraordinary union of software and hardware. Lovelace brought the poetical science and Babbage the mechanical engineering for the machine. In 1843 she translated a scientific paper by an Italian military engineer adding to it seven footnotes. Together they measured 65 pages or two and a half times the length of the original paper. In one of those footnotes Lovelace wrote what is considered the first complete computer program, which made it the world's first paper on computer science and made Lovelace the world's first computer programmer. She was 27 years old.
This video is part of a series on female genius, in proud collaboration with 92Y's 7 Days of Genius Festival.
The story of Ada Lovelace, the world's first computer programmer, begins with a mathematically gifted mother and, as father, the Romantic poet Lord Byron. Notorious for his philandering, Byron contributed the strong poetical streak to his daughter's worldview. Lovelace's interest in poetry, however, was something her mother wanted stamp out, surrounding Lovelace with mathematics at the exclusion of the arts. But when Lovelace met Charles Babbage, the mechanical engineer behind the first computer, she found an outlet for her creativity, writing the first complete computer algorithm and becoming the world's first computer programmer, all at the age of twenty-seven.
Swiss researchers identify new dangers of modern cocaine.
- Cocaine cut with anti-worming adulterant levamisole may cause brain damage.
- Levamisole can thin out the prefrontal cortex and affect cognitive skills.
- Government health programs should encourage testing of cocaine for purity.
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Civil discourse has fallen to an all time low.
The question that the American populace needs to ask itself now is: how do we fix it?
Discursive fundamentals need to be taught to preserve free expression
In their findings the authors state:
upholding First Amendment ideals.
Talking politics at Thanksgiving dinner
- Progressive Activists: younger, highly engaged, secular, cosmopolitan, angry.
- Traditional Liberals: older, retired, open to compromise, rational, cautious.
- Passive Liberals: unhappy, insecure, distrustful, disillusioned.
- Politically Disengaged: young, low income, distrustful, detached, patriotic, conspiratorial
- Moderates: engaged, civic-minded, middle-of-the-road, pessimistic, Protestant.
- Traditional Conservatives: religious, middle class, patriotic, moralistic.
- Devoted Conservatives: white, retired, highly engaged, uncompromising,
It's interesting to note the authors found that:
"Tribe membership shows strong reliability in predicting views across different political topics."
Here are some statistics on differing viewpoints according to political party:
- 51% of staunch liberals say it's "morally acceptable" to punch Nazis.
- 53% of Republicans favor stripping U.S. citizenship from people who burn the American flag.
- 65% of Republicans say NFL players should be fired if they refuse to stand for the anthem.
- 58% of Democrats say employers should punish employees for offensive Facebook posts.
- 47% of Republicans favor bans on building new mosques.
Here are some guidelines for civic discourse that might come in handy:
- Practice inclusion and listen to who you're speaking to.
Civic discourse in the divisive age
dangerously tribal, fueled by a culture of outrage and taking offense. For the combatants,
the other side can no longer be tolerated, and no price is too high to defeat them.
These tensions are poisoning personal relationships, consuming our politics and
putting our democracy in peril.
Once a country has become tribalized, debates about contested issues from
immigration and trade to economic management, climate change and national security,
become shaped by larger tribal identities. Policy debate gives way to tribal conflicts.
Polarization and tribalism are self-reinforcing and will likely continue to accelerate.
The work of rebuilding our fragmented society needs to start now. It extends from
re-connecting people across the lines of division in local communities all the way to
building a renewed sense of national identity: a bigger story of us."
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