Would companies be more diverse if A.I. did the hiring?
The best hiring manager might just be the computer sitting on your desk, says AI expert Joanna Bryson.
Joanna Bryson: Can AI remove implicit bias from the hiring process? “Remove”, entirely remove? No.
But as I understand I've had multiple people tell me that it's already reducing the impact of implicit bias, so they're already happy with what they're seeing.
So what is implicit bias, first of all? It's important to understand that implicit bias and explicit bias are two different things.
Implicit bias is stuff that you're not conscious of; you're not aware of it; it's hard for you to control; it's probably impossible for you to control.
It's impossible for you to control, right now, on demand. You might be able to alter it by exposing yourself to different situations or whatever and changing what we in machine learning call priors—so changing your experiences.
So maybe if you see more women in senior positions you'll become less implicitly sexist, or something like that.
But anyway, explicit bias is like “I’m going to choose to only work with women” or “I’m going to choose only to work with men” and I know that and I'm conscious about it.
So HR departments are reasonably good at getting people who hopefully honestly are saying “yeah I'm not going to be racist or sexist or whatever-ist, I'm not going to worry about how long somebody's name is or what the country of origin of someone of their ancestors is.” So hopefully HR people can spot the people who sincerely are neutral, at least at the explicit level.
But at the implicit level, there's a lot of evidence that something else might be going on. Again, we don't know for sure if it's implicit or explicit, but what we do know is that in the paper we did in 2017 one of my co-authors Aylin Caliskan had this brilliant idea of looking at the resume data. So there's this famous study that showed that you have identical resumes and the only thing you do is have more African-American names versus European American names, and the people with European American names get 50 percent more calls in to interview with nothing else changed.
And so now people are talking about “whitening” their CVs just so they get that chance to interview. So anyway, it looks by the measures that we used with the vector spaces as if the data and the implicit bias that also explains implicit bias also explains those choices on the resume.
So does that mean people are looking at it and explicitly saying, “Oh I think that's an African-American?” Or were they just going through huge stacks of CVs and some didn't jump out at them in the same ways that others did? Because we're pretty sure when it comes down to like they're all sitting in the room together that that point was okay.
And so what the AI is doing for them is it's helping them pick out the characteristics they're looking for and ignoring the other characteristics. So they're helping them detect the things that they wanted to be: when they were sitting in the room with multiple eyes looking at something, that they were looking at the right starting place and then they're able to find - they're finding people that were falling through the cracks.
A lot of people have trouble, that there's not enough good people applying or that they thought there weren't enough good people applying, but actually, they were missing people because they didn't see the qualifications buried in the other stuff when they're leafing through these stacks.
So a lot of people are reporting that they have great data or they're very pleased with the results, but that's privately and it's off the record and I can't get anyone to go on the record.
I just recently at Princeton, the Center for Information Technology Policy ran a meeting about AI, and somebody, again in Chatham House, I can't say who it was, but an organization that's sort of between corporate and—anyway it's a special kind of organization, they said that they're going to try and do this and so I begged them to document it. I said look you're in a different situation you don't have ordinary customers, please document the results fully and then publish papers about it so we can really see what the outcomes are.
So I hope we'll have that data, but so far I could only tell you that people are saying it really is working.
One of the possible shortfalls of that kind of situation, well first of all being sure that you can eliminate bias that way, no; there's all kinds of ways you can accidentally pick up on things.
So even if you don't have gender you might recognize gender from the name, for example. So there's ways that machine learning picks up on regularities that are illegal and, again, you have to do your own auditing and make sure that that isn't happening.
And I guess that's the biggest concern. Of course anytime you scan something and make it digital the net makes it amenable to hacking, so you have to be careful about that.
And I guess the biggest thing is don't believe that just because you've automated part of a process you've made it fair. You have to keep checking—Just like anything else you keep going to improve.
But yeah when you put these things in front of you and when you write them down, then yeah you have the potential to keep improving.
I guess there's one other thing, which I haven't mentioned, which is that once you've automated the process you do open the door for somebody who is, say, an evil racist to go in and actually tweak things and make it so that you get all one race.
So you need to make sure that there's adequate oversight and regular auditing because people worry about accidentally introducing bias, and that's good, we should worry about that, but we should be really worried about deliberately introducing bias.
That's the thing that I think, again, because people think artificial intelligence is like space aliens that are kind of - it's actually almost like sort of the Greco Roman or Nordic gods or something, like “Maybe we can pray to them correctly and they'll give us what we want, but they're capricious and we're not sure.”
No, it's not like that. It really is something that we have an opportunity to try to fix it, and it works in systematic ways, but it's important to understand that people are writing it, and that means that some people will make mistakes, some people will be sloppy, some people will do what they seriously think is the best thing, but it actually isn't legal and some people will go out of their way to do bad things because they're just vandals or because that's how they got elected or whatever.
The best hiring manager might just be the computer sitting on your desk. AI and ethics expert Joanna Bryson posits that artificial intelligence can go through all the resumes in a stack and find what employers are missing. Most humans, on the other hand, will rely on biases — whether they are aware of them or not — to get them through the selection process. This is sadly why those with European-sounding names get more calls for interviews than others. AI, she says, can change that. Joanna is brought to you today by Amway. Amway believes that diversity and inclusion are essential to the growth and prosperity of today’s companies. When woven into every aspect of the talent life cycle, companies committed to diversity and inclusion are the best equipped to innovate, improve brand image and drive performance.
Treasury Secretary Steven Mnuchin has cancelled an upcoming trip to an economic conference in Saudi Arabia amid the controversy involving missing journalist Jamal Khashoggi.
- Saudi Arabia's economic conference has been dubbed "Davos in the Desert".
- Mnuchin joins a growing list of officials and industry executives who've dropped out of the event.
- It's turning into a PR nightmare for the nation, particularly for Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman.
A new report warns about the increasing likelihood of international conflicts over water.
- A study finds that serious conflicts over water are going to arise around the globe.
- The 5 hotspots identified by the paper include areas of the Nile, Ganges-Brahmaputra, Indus, Tigris-Euphrates, and Colorado rivers.
- It's still possible to change course if we are prepared to address the effects of climate change.
Follow your nose all the way home.
- It has to do with two parts of the brain, both of which are thicker in those with better smell and spacial recognition.
- Your nose can detect about 1 trillion smells.
- While your nose isn't a full GPS, it can help you pick out a general direction.
Are we sure this isn't alien technology?
- A Larry Page-backed company has announced that its flying car will go on sale in 2019.
- It's called the BlackFly.
- Not quite the escape from traffic you had in mind, but it's a jaw-dropping start.
He was recruited by Jim Henson himself in 1969.
- His last performance will be this coming Thursday, Oct. 19
- A feature movie about him was made in 2014
- Other actors will take over. Well, at least, they'll try ...
There will never be enough time. Here's how to use it more wisely.
- One-third of us are suffering from chronic stress in the workplace. Other studies suggest that half of us bring our work stress home, creating stress in our personal lives.
- Being busy has become a cultural obsession. But it's not the golden badge of honor we think it is. Dan Pontefract points out that there's a big difference between being busy and being productive.
- The best productivity hack? Schedule a break. That means eating lunch away from your desk. Saying hello to people around you. Keep a graph in your mind that has 'action' on the x-axis and 'reflection' on the y-axis. Where do you sit on that graph?
Ever wanted to describe precisely how crummy you feel after a bad haircut?
- English is a phenomenal language, but there are circumstances where words seem to fail us.
- Often, other languages have already found a solution to expressing the complicated ideas that can't be succinctly conveyed in English.
- If you've ever wanted to describe the anguish of a bad haircut, the pleasure of walking in the woods, or the satisfaction of finding your life's purpose, read on.
Don't get me wrong. The English language has some very excellent words. There's petrichor, the pleasant smell of the first rain after warm and dry weather. Paraprosdokian—which describes sentences that end surprisingly, forcing the reader to reinterpret the first half—is both oddly specific and fantastic to say out loud. I'm even a fan of new inventions, like tweetstorm, even if I'm not a fan of the experience.
But English-speaking culture—like any culture—has a limited perspective on the world. Just like English, Japanese also has some five-star words that English could stand to borrow. The Japanese have an entirely different perspective on the world than many English-speaking cultures—as proof, it's tough to imagine that the politely reserved Japanese have a word for defenestrate, or the act of throwing somebody out of a window. Here's the top 7 Japanese words that we could use in English.
(Flickr user Raul Pacheco-Vega)
Literally translating to "life value," Ikigai is best understood as the reason somebody gets up in the morning—somebody's reason for living. It's a combination of what you are good at, what you get paid to do, what you love to do, and what the world needs.
We often find our ikigai during flow states, which occur when a given task is just challenging and absorbing enough that we forget time has passed, that "in the zone" sensation. But it's more nuanced than something that is simply absorbing or a passion; it's a fulfilling kind of work that benefits oneself and others.
Karoshi, or death from overwork, provides a nice contrast to the concept of ikigai. Japan's work culture is so over the top that dying from working too hard is not uncommon. This word covers a range of ailments from heart failure to suicide, so long as the root of their cause is in working too hard.
As another hardworking nation, the U.S. could stand to better appreciate the dangers of overwork. Americans put in an average 47 hours a week, which is demonstrably bad for our health.
(Flickr user jungle_group)
This word translates to "forest-bathing," which sums up the activity fairly well. It's getting outdoors to de-stress, relax, and promote well-being. While the concept is familiar, we clearly don't place enough importance on getting outdoors to honor it with its own term.
According to the Environmental Protection Agency, Americans spend about 87% of their time indoors, which is clearly too much. Meanwhile, being in nature is associated with a slew of benefits, like improving memory, reducing stress and anxiety, and even lowering inflammation. Scotland has the right idea—doctors in Shetland can now prescribe nature to their patients.
4. Shikata ga nai
Used interchangeably with shouganai, this term roughly means "it cannot be helped." You can think of it as the Japanese equivalent of c'est la vie´or amor fati. It's the idea that one should accept things outside of one's control with dignity and grace and not implode from the pressure of having no control over a terrible situation.
This concept is a bit controversial. During the U.S. internment of Japanese-Americans after the bombing of Pearl Harbor, many Japanese-Americans resigned themselves to their mistreatment, characterizing the situation as shikata ga nai.
On the other hand, when a tsunami devastated Japan in 2011, many outside observers commented upon the stoic way the Japanese carried on with their daily lives, an example of the positive side of shikata ga nai.
While it's a little less high-minded than the previous words on this list, it's certainly one that I and others could use. A combination of tsunde-oku (letting things pile up) and dukosho (reading books), tsundoku is the practice of buying a book you swear you're going to read, obviously not doing that, finding a new book you swear you're going to read, and then letting these abandoned books pile up in your house until it's a certifiable fire hazard.
Garden State (2004)
You're in a terrible, anti-social mood and don't want to see anybody at all today. Suddenly, your doorbell rings; you lie as still as possible in your bed (surrounded by the hordes of unread books you purchased), praying the unwanted visitor leaves. This is the practice of irusu, or pretending not to be home when somebody rings your doorbell. It's a very common experience, although maybe the modern-day equivalent is responding "Sorry, I just got this" hours after you actually saw a text.
Not everybody practices tsundoku, and I'm sure some extroverts are entirely unfamiliar with practicing irusu, but everybody can identify with getting a bad haircut. Age-otori is the feeling one gets after leaving a barbershop looking worse than you did going in. It's an ingenious word for the unique blend of regret, suffering, and shame you feel after you foolishly trusted your elderly barber when he said "Yeah, I can do a hard part."
While Japanese has some phenomenal words, there are some that the English language probably doesn't have need of. For example, a nito-onna is a woman so obsessed with her job that she doesn't have time to iron her blouses and so resorts to wearing knitted tops constantly. It's a wonderfully specific word, but its specificity probably doesn't translate to English-speaking contexts.
There's also the hikikomori, a mostly Japanese phenomenon involving modern-day hermits that don't leave their bedrooms for years and years. People like this exist in English-speaking contexts, but we generally characterize these as people suffering from anxiety, as loners, or hermits. In addition, part of what makes a hikikomori is the high pressure and highly ritualized nature of Japanese society, a feature that is mostly absent in English-speaking contexts.
So, write to our good friends Merriam and Webster. Let's see if we can pack a little more utility into the English language.
NASA research finds a new direction in searching for signs of life in the Universe.
- NASA-funded research says retinal, not chlorophyll, gave the early Earth its color
- The two pigments co-evolved but retinal came first
- We should be looking for retinal-based life throughout the Universe
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