How a Film Becomes a Cult Classic
Danny\r\n Rubin: Well, it wasn’t an overnight success in that way. I mean, I\r\n think when it first came out, generally the reviews said, “Another \r\ncomedy by Harold Ramis. It’s kind of cute.” Two, two and half star \r\nkind of reviews. But there were other places where people seemed to dig\r\n it right away. I was getting letters from Germany and from England. A\r\n lot of fans in England who just thought it was an extraordinary movie \r\nand my feeling was I felt justified. I was like, “Yeah, that’s what it \r\nwas supposed to be.” And it was just very slowly that people realized \r\nthat everybody was sort of saying, “Oh, have you seen "Groundhog Day?" It\r\n was really good.” And it was just sort of a buzz started developing \r\nand then little things started happening.
Like, there was a big \r\nBuddhist convention in San Francisco and somebody delivered a paper \r\nabout "Groundhog Day" and Buddhism and people realized that people were—psychologists were showing it to their patients, prescribing it and all \r\nkinds of different religious disciplines were embracing it and giving \r\nsermons and lectures and writing important papers based on the \r\nphilosophy of "Groundhog Day."
And Harold Ramis was also getting \r\nletters and notes and the two of us would compare things and say, “Wow, \r\nthis is really interesting.” And then, at some point, I guess Roger \r\nEbert wrote, not a retraction, but a new review that sort of said, “I \r\nthink we should revisit this movie. I think this is a little better \r\nthan I thought.” And I know at the end of the year that it came out \r\nin’93, William Goldman, the screenwriter, was reflecting on movies of \r\nthe past year and he was the one who wrote, "I think 'Groundhog Day' is \r\nthe one that will be—of all of the movies that came out this year, \r\nit’s the one that will be remembered in 10 years,” and perhaps that gave\r\n it some street cred or got some people thinking.
But, I don’t \r\nknow. I think people just like it and a little bit at a time, it \r\nstarted to develop this, not exactly a following, but an awful lot of \r\npeople who identified with it.
Question: What makes \r\npeople identify so strongly with the movie?
Danny Rubin: \r\n I haven’t thought a lot about that, but everybody seems to have their \r\nown reason and that’s what makes it so remarkable. Everybody seems to \r\nbring their own way of thinking and their own discipline to bear on the \r\nideas within it and would express this is absolutely describing the \r\nessence of Judaism. This is the essence of Nietzsche’s philosophy. \r\nThis is the essence homeopathy. I mean, I’ve seen all of this. I think\r\n there's something about - I think we understand how people grow and \r\ndevelop. Okay, I have a few answers. I think I understand how people -\r\n we understand how people grow and develop in a linear time fashion. \r\nHow you have an adolescence at a certain age and you start to develop \r\nadulthood and you start to mature. But, I think the movie shows that it\r\n is the repetition of days itself which pushes us forward in our own \r\nmaturation as we start to encounter the same things over and over again.
And\r\n so, there's an element of truth to the fact that we are repeating the \r\nsame day over and over again. But, I think the biggest thing that \r\naffects people is the fact that Phil is presented with the exact same \r\nday and the very first time he’s presented with it, it’s probably the \r\nworst day of his life. And, by the end of the movie, we see that it’s \r\nthe exact same day but somehow this is probably the best day of his \r\nlife. It’s the day he fell in love and she fell in love with him and \r\neverybody loves him and he was living a fulfilling life pursuing culture\r\n and things that he loved and appreciating the day and doing good works \r\nand contributing to society and it makes it very clear that we are in \r\ncontrol of our day. We can control our future. There's something very \r\nempowering about it and
"Groundhog Day," it’s almost an experiment that \r\nsays, "See? Here's a guy who is having a terrible day and he’s kind of a\r\n horrible person and just through the act of repetition and paying \r\nattention and remembering, he is forced to change who he is and by \r\nchanging who he is, he changes the life that he experiences the world \r\naround him. That, I think, is the main thing that gets people very \r\nexcited about the movie.
Recorded on May 12, 2010
Interviewed by Paul Hoffman
At first, the critical consensus was that "Groundhog Day" was merely "cute." But over time it developed a mass following of viewers and critics alike.
The Spilhaus Projection may be more than 75 years old, but it has never been more relevant than today.
- Athelstan Spilhaus designed an oceanic thermometer to fight the Nazis, and the weather balloon that got mistaken for a UFO in Roswell.
- In 1942, he produced a world map with a unique perspective, presenting the world's oceans as one body of water.
- The Spilhaus Projection could be just what the oceans need to get the attention their problems deserve.
It's just the current cycle that involves opiates, but methamphetamine, cocaine, and others have caused the trajectory of overdoses to head the same direction
- It appears that overdoses are increasing exponentially, no matter the drug itself
- If the study bears out, it means that even reducing opiates will not slow the trajectory.
- The causes of these trends remain obscure, but near the end of the write-up about the study, a hint might be apparent
Through computationally intensive computer simulations, researchers have discovered that "nuclear pasta," found in the crusts of neutron stars, is the strongest material in the universe.
- The strongest material in the universe may be the whimsically named "nuclear pasta."
- You can find this substance in the crust of neutron stars.
- This amazing material is super-dense, and is 10 billion times harder to break than steel.
Superman is known as the "Man of Steel" for his strength and indestructibility. But the discovery of a new material that's 10 billion times harder to break than steel begs the question—is it time for a new superhero known as "Nuclear Pasta"? That's the name of the substance that a team of researchers thinks is the strongest known material in the universe.
Unlike humans, when stars reach a certain age, they do not just wither and die, but they explode, collapsing into a mass of neurons. The resulting space entity, known as a neutron star, is incredibly dense. So much so that previous research showed that the surface of a such a star would feature amazingly strong material. The new research, which involved the largest-ever computer simulations of a neutron star's crust, proposes that "nuclear pasta," the material just under the surface, is actually stronger.
The competition between forces from protons and neutrons inside a neutron star create super-dense shapes that look like long cylinders or flat planes, referred to as "spaghetti" and "lasagna," respectively. That's also where we get the overall name of nuclear pasta.
Caplan & Horowitz/arXiv
Diagrams illustrating the different types of so-called nuclear pasta.
The researchers' computer simulations needed 2 million hours of processor time before completion, which would be, according to a press release from McGill University, "the equivalent of 250 years on a laptop with a single good GPU." Fortunately, the researchers had access to a supercomputer, although it still took a couple of years. The scientists' simulations consisted of stretching and deforming the nuclear pasta to see how it behaved and what it would take to break it.
While they were able to discover just how strong nuclear pasta seems to be, no one is holding their breath that we'll be sending out missions to mine this substance any time soon. Instead, the discovery has other significant applications.
One of the study's co-authors, Matthew Caplan, a postdoctoral research fellow at McGill University, said the neutron stars would be "a hundred trillion times denser than anything on earth." Understanding what's inside them would be valuable for astronomers because now only the outer layer of such starts can be observed.
"A lot of interesting physics is going on here under extreme conditions and so understanding the physical properties of a neutron star is a way for scientists to test their theories and models," Caplan added. "With this result, many problems need to be revisited. How large a mountain can you build on a neutron star before the crust breaks and it collapses? What will it look like? And most importantly, how can astronomers observe it?"
Another possibility worth studying is that, due to its instability, nuclear pasta might generate gravitational waves. It may be possible to observe them at some point here on Earth by utilizing very sensitive equipment.
The team of scientists also included A. S. Schneider from California Institute of Technology and C. J. Horowitz from Indiana University.
Check out the study "The elasticity of nuclear pasta," published in Physical Review Letters.
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