Understanding Creativity: Why Brain Hacks Don't Help
Everyone thinks they know how to make their brain more creative and have better ideas.
David Eagleman is a neuroscientist and a New York Times bestselling author. He directs the Laboratory for Perception and Action at the Baylor College of Medicine, where he also directs the Initiative on Neuroscience and Law. He is best known for his work on time perception, brain plasticity, synesthesia, and neurolaw.
Beyond his 100+ academic publications, he has published many popular books. His bestselling book Incognito: The Secret Lives of the Brain, explores the neuroscience "under the hood" of the conscious mind: all the aspects of neural function to which we have no awareness or access. His work of fiction, SUM, is an international bestseller published in 28 languages and turned into two operas. Why the Net Matters examines what the advent of the internet means on the timescale of civilizations. The award-winning Wednesday is Indigo Blue explores the neurological condition of synesthesia, in which the senses are blended.
Eagleman is a TED speaker, a Guggenheim Fellow, a winner of the McGovern Award for Excellence in Biomedical Communication, a Next Generation Texas Fellow, Vice-Chair on the World Economic Forum's Global Agenda Council on Neuroscience & Behaviour, a research fellow in the Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies, Chief Scientific Advisor for the Mind Science Foundation, and a board member of The Long Now Foundation. He has served as an academic editor for several scientific journals. He was named Science Educator of the Year by the Society for Neuroscience, and was featured as one of the Brightest Idea Guys by Italy's Style magazine. He is founder of the company BrainCheck and the cofounder of the company NeoSensory. He was the scientific advisor for the television drama Perception, and has been profiled on the Colbert Report, NOVA Science Now, the New Yorker, CNN's Next List, and many other venues. He appears regularly on radio and television to discuss literature and science.
David Eagleman: There are many books that exist on creativity and it’s about, “hey, do this,” “take a hot shower” or “take a long walk in nature,” “be in a pink room,” or something.
What my coauthor Anthony Brandt and I really strove to do here was to figure out what is below all of that.
What is the basic cognitive software that’s running in the human brain that takes ideas in and smooshes them up and crunches them—and it’s like a food processor that’s constantly spitting out new ideas.
The key is that humans are really different from one another, and for one person taking a hot shower might work and for another person a cold shower. One person works well in the morning and another person at night. For one writer they should go and sit in the coffee shop where it’s loud, and for another writer, it works better for them to sit alone in their quiet office and write.
So I suspect there’s no single piece of advice that’s going to apply to everyone, and that was our—that’s what we wanted to avoid, was that sort of thing.
Instead, we’re trying to understand what is it that’s special about the human brain that allows creativity to happen?
Because when you look at us compared to all the other species on the Earth—we have very similar brains. I mean, you know, obviously we’re cousins with our nearest neighbors and all throughout the animal kingdom, it’s a continuous family tree.
But there's this one species that has gone, that does these incredible—we’re in New York City right now and when I flew in here it’s like looking at a motherboard that has risen from the earth. And when you fly over a forest it looks the same as it did a million years ago.
So we’re running around the planet doing something unbelievable. You don’t have squirrels going to the moon or dogs inventing the internet or cows doing theater plays for one another or any of the gazillion things that we do.
We’re doing something really different, and that’s what Anthony and I have really tried to understand.
So I’m a neuroscientist. Anthony is a music composer, and we started talking about creativity a while ago, many years ago, we’ve been good friends for a long time—And we started realizing that there were all these very interesting ways which our views came together. So then we ended up writing this book together.
What’s special about the human brain is that we, during the evolution of the cortex, got a lot more space in between input and output.
So other animals have these much closer together. So when they get some stimulus they make an essentially reflexive response.
In humans, as the cortex expanded there’s a lot more room there, which means that inputs can come in and sort of percolate around and get stored and get thought about, and then maybe you make an output or maybe you don’t.
And there’s one other thing that happened with the expansion of the cortex, which is that we got a much bigger prefrontal cortex. That’s the part right behind the forehead.
And that is what allows us to simulate what ifs, to separate ourselves from our location in space and time and think about possibilities. “What if I did that? What if I had done that? What if I could do that?” And so we do this all the time.
The amazing part is now there are almost eight billion brains running around the planet and as a result creativity—I mean the creativity of our species—has gone up in this amazing way, because there’s so much raw material to draw on and there are so many of us that are constantly saying “well what if this, what if that?”
Most of the things we generate stink. And, in fact, only some fraction of them even percolate up to consciousness. And of those most of those stink. But every once in a while you have one that works, that actually sticks for your society, for your moment in space and time, and you make the next step.
And so what’s happening now is we’ve got this massively bootstrapping society going on around us.
People think that their brain is like an iPhone — if they can just unlock it and press a few things in a certain order, then something is sure to happen. That's just not the case, as neuroscientist David Eagleman tells us. While some swear a cold shower helps them think better it's simply a matter of personal preference; what works for one might not work for anyone else. David has a great line: "You don’t have squirrels going to the moon or dogs inventing the internet or cows doing theater plays for one another or any of the gazillion things that we do." Quite frankly, what gets creatvity going the best is actually the most boring: a good diet and regular exercise... but where's the fun (and clickable headline) in that? David's new book is The Runaway Species: How Human Creativity Remakes the World.
When adults are challenged to behave like adults, by a child, they can go in one of two directions.
A disturbing interview given by a KGB defector in 1984 describes America of today and outlines four stages of mass brainwashing used by the KGB.
- Bezmenov described this process as "a great brainwashing" which has four basic stages.
- The first stage is called "demoralization" which takes from 15 to 20 years to achieve.
- According to the former KGB agent, that is the minimum number of years it takes to re-educate one generation of students that is normally exposed to the ideology of its country.
When it comes to scientific theory, (or your personal life) be sure to question everything.
- The theories we build to navigate the world, both scientifically and in our personal lives, all contain assumptions. They're a critical part of scientific theory.
- Cognitive psychologist Donald Hoffman urges us to always question those assumptions. In this way, by challenging ourselves, we come to a deeper understanding of the task at hand.
- Historically, humans have come to some of our greatest discoveries by simply questioning assumed information.