Dale Jamieson Goes Green
\r\nProfessor Jamieson's most recent book is Morality’s Progress: Essays \r\non Humans, Other Animals, and the Rest of Nature (Oxford, 2002). He\r\n is also the editor or co-editor of seven books, most recently A \r\nCompanion to Environmental Philosophy (Blackwell, 2001), and Singer\r\n and his Critics (Blackwell, 1999), named by Choice as one of\r\n the outstanding academic books of 1999. He has also published more than\r\n eighty articles and book chapters. His research has been funded by the\r\n Ethics and Values Studies Program of the National Science Foundation, \r\nthe US Environmental Protection Agency, the National Endowment for the \r\nHumanities, and the Office of Global Programs in the National \r\nAtmospheric and Aeronautics Administration. He is on the editorial board\r\n of such journals as Environmental Ethics; Environmental \r\nValues; Science, Techology and Human Values; Science and \r\nEngineering Ethics; the Journal of Applied Animal Welfare; \r\nand The Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics. \r\n\r\n
Question: Why should human behavior be in tune with the environment?
Dale Jamieson: I think for me the argument really rests on a certain conception of what it is to be human. Now, other people have tried to argue that conceptions of rights and interests that I and others think apply to animals really extend further than that. There are people who argue, for example, that trees have rights or that we have moral duties that are directly owed to forest and to ecosystems and so on. I'm not persuaded of those arguments, I mean, I do think those arguments do apply to other non-human animals. I don't think we're special among animals in the kinds of interest and rights that we have. But then the next question that really arises about our relationship to nature is what is it for animals like us to have good lives and to flourish and to have meaningful lives in the environments in which we evolve and in relation to the nature to which we're so well-adapted. And there, I think, questions about what it means to respect nature become very important because just as in human society, for example, part of what it is for me to live a good life as a human being in a human society is to have respect for others around me. Now, that respect, to some extent, can be thought of as being grounded in the rights and interest of others but it also has to do with the stance that I take in the world and what it is that provides meaning and significance in my own life and I think there are similar ideas of respect for nature that apply as well. And that having a certain attitude towards nature is part of what it is for me to have a good life as a human being.
Question: Should environmentalism be economically justified?
Dale Jamieson: At some level, I'm not too concern with people's motivations in the sense that if we can figure out how to live together with nature without blowing ourselves up and destroying nature, even if we all have different reasons about why that's a bad thing, you know, I'll take them. At the same time, there has become a kind of pervasive economistization of the rhetoric in American life. If we go back to the 16th or 17th Century, if we wanted to argue about family obligations, who had rights to cut down trees and forests, whether we should help the poor, all of these arguments would be made in religious terms. The common currency of the arguments would be the Bible, it would be some conception of God and so on. And even though we were talking about something entirely different, the touch stone of all these arguments would somehow have to be in terms of this common sense of religion that pervaded the society. I think increasingly, economic rhetoric has replaced religious rhetoric in our society so somehow we make all our arguments in economic terms. If I want to argue, for example, that one of the great last wild places of the earth, the Patagonian region of Chile should not be damned, there proposals to build five huge tall dams in Patagonia now, and I say one reason we shouldn't dam Patagonia is because it's one of the wildest and most beautiful places on earth, even environmentalists then will want me to say, "Well, how can we express that value in economic terms?" and we'll try to make an argument to try to show that the economic benefits of the aesthetic value of Patagonia outweighs the merely consumptive value of producing electricity from those dams and that's how we'll make the case. Well, as I said, in some way I don't mind too much with people's motivations are as long as we can get to some collectively livable outcome but there is a kind of debasement of our language and our rhetoric and our reasoning and the fact of the matter is, aesthetics do matter to us, morality matters to us, and sometimes we do things out of a sense of wonder, out of a sense of awe, out of a sense of rightness and out of a sense of beauty and we should be willing to discuss those considerations in their own terms and not think that somehow they have to be usually, in some entirely confabulated way reduced to dollars and cents, to have any role to play in the way we think about environmental issues. That disturbs me and that I feel very much opposed to.
Question: What is the best argument for vegetarianism?
Dale Jamieson: It used to be that the case for vegetarianism was somewhat controversial because while it's the case that factory farmed animals suffer enormously and while it's the case that the conversion of grain to animal protein is extremely inefficient, there were things that people could say in the other side of these arguments. So, for example, in response to factory farming, people would say as Michael Pollan still sometimes is given to saying, "Well, what if animals have happy lives. What if they're not factory farmed? What if we can kill them painlessly?" When it comes to the inefficiency of the system, "Oh, what if we don't eat so much meat and so on and so forth," and those kinds of arguments do have some weight. But I think the mother of all arguments against eating meat now is the climate change argument. Methane is a much more powerful greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide and when we eat meat we wipe away many of the good things that we do when we try to create greener and more sustainable practices in the rest of our lives. So if you add the concern for climate change with other concerns that were there. I think the case for vegetarianism is pretty overwhelming.
Now, I must say that in my own mind, I think what's important is for us, as a society, to radically reduce the consumption of meat. This is more important than some fraction of us become moral saints and become vegetarians so it would be much better if we would reduce meat consumption by three quarters of each of us as an individuals would only eat one-quarter as much meat as we do now then that half of the population should become vegetarian. We should see this as a collective challenge rather than an issue about individual, moral period.
Recorded on: April 15, 2009
The philosopher frames environmentalism in terms of climate change and sustainable development.
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Certain colors are globally linked to certain feelings, the study reveals.
- Color psychology is often used in marketing to alter your perception of products and services.
- Various studies and experiments across multiple years have given us more insight into the link between personality and color.
- The results of a new study spanning 6 continents (30 nations) shows universal correlations between colors and emotions around the globe.
The root of color psychology<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9e40cf62fa8922fcca6c57e2fcb215b6"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/OM4fXB23pCQ?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>There is a very likely chance you've even been "fooled" by color marketing in the past, or you've chosen one product over another subconsciously due to colors that were designed to influence your emotions.<br></p><p>Companies that want to be known for being dependable often use blue in their logos, for example (Dell, HP, IBM). Companies that want to be perceived as fun and exciting go for a splash of orange (Fanta, Nickelodeon, even Amazon). Green is associated with natural, peaceful emotions and is often used by companies like Whole Foods and Tropicana. </p><p><strong>Your favorite color says a lot about your personality. </strong></p><p>Various studies and experiments across multiple years (<a href="https://www.researchgate.net/publication/49595886_Personality_Traits_and_Colour_Preferences" target="_blank">2010</a>, <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/jopy.12087" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2014</a>, <a href="http://oaji.net/articles/2015/1170-1448038739.pdf" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2015</a>, and more recently in <a href="https://www.verywellmind.com/color-psychology-2795824#modern-research-on-color-psychology" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">2019</a>) have given us more insight into the link between your personality and your favorite color.</p><p>Red, for example, is considered a bold color and is associated with feelings such as excitement, passion, anger, danger, energy, and love. The personality traits of this color might be someone who is bold, a little impulsive, and who loves adventure. </p><p>Orange, on the other hand, is considered representative of creativity, happiness, and freedom. The personality traits of this color can be fun, playful, cheerful, nurturing, and productive. Read more about color psychology and personalities <a href="https://bigthink.com/mind-brain/color-personality-psychology?rebelltitem=2#rebelltitem2" target="_self">here</a>.</p>
Study reveals which colors best suit which emotions around the globe<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDYzMTk5OS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyODc4OTg5OH0.bY-pu-MFNivdJLDJuBp9TBKrhwuy7hngUa1aIWxQMVw/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C93%2C0%2C94&height=700" id="33fff" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="1a5d7bb00dac94bd6201616789fb4882" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="concept of color psychology how colors make us feel color emotions" />
Certain colors are globally ties to certain emotions, the study reveals.
Image by agsandrew on Shutterstock<p>In this particular survey, participants were asked to fill out an online questionnaire which involved assigning 20 emotions to 12 different color terms. They were also asked to specify the intensity with which they associated the color term with the emotion.</p><p><strong>Certain colors are globally linked to certain emotions, the study reveals.</strong></p><p>The results of this study showed a few definite correlations between colors and emotions throughout the globe. Red, for example, is the only color that is strongly associated with both negative (anger) and positive (love) feelings. Brown, on the other end of the spectrum, is the color that triggers the fewest emotions globally.<br></p><p>The color white is closely associated with sadness in China, while purple is what is closely associated with sadness in Greece. This can be traced back to the roots of each culture, with white being worn at funerals in China and dark purple being the Greek Orthodox Church's color of mourning. </p><p>Yellow is more associated with joy, specifically in countries that see less sunshine. Meanwhile, its association with joy is weaker in areas that have greater exposure to sunshine. </p><p><a href="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200910150247.htm" target="_blank">According to Dr. Oberfeld-Twistel</a>, it is difficult to say exactly what the causes for global similarities and differences are. "There is a range of possible influencing factors: language, culture, religion, climate, the history of human development, the human perceptual system."</p>
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A growing body of research suggests COVID-19 can cause neurological damage in some patients.
- The study examined data of cognitive performance collected from more than 84,000 people, more than 12,000 of whom had likely contracted and recovered from COVID-19.
- Compared to healthy participants, the COVID-19 group performed significantly worse on cognitive tests.
- Mental decline in the worst cases were the equivalent of ageing by 10 years.
The effect size of cognitive deficits varied across three cognitive domains, which were estimated by applying principal component analysis with varimax rotation to the nine test summary scores.
Hampshire et al.<p>Participants who suffered the most severe cases of COVID-19, and had to be put on a respirator, showed cognitive "equivalent to the average 10-year decline in global performance between the ages of 20 to 70." For comparison, the study notes that the difference in cognitive performance between this group and the control "equates to an 8.5-point difference in IQ."<br></p><p>The COVID-19 group scored particularly low on tests measuring semantic problem solving and visual selective attention.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"People who have recovered from COVID-19 infection show particularly pronounced problems in multiple aspects of higher cognitive or 'executive' function, an observation that accords with preliminary reports of executive dysfunction in some patients at hospital discharge," the researchers wrote.</p><p>Considering that all participants had recovered from the disease when they completed the cognitive tests, the results suggest that "COVID-19 infection likely has consequences for cognitive function that persist into the recovery phase," the researchers wrote.</p><p>Still, it's unclear whether these deficits (if indeed caused by COVID-19) are permanent, or how long they may last. But there is evidence suggesting that severe respiratory conditions can cause neurological damage. A <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13054-019-2626-z" target="_blank">2011 study</a>, for example, found that people who'd been hospitalized with acute respiratory distress syndrome can suffer cognitive deficits that persist up to five years after discharge.</p>
The Block Rearrange test [featured in the Great British Intelligence Test] measures spatial problem solving.
Credit: Hampshire et al.<p>It's worth noting the study is limited, mainly because it didn't compare before-and-after cognitive performance of the COVID-19 group. Another possible limitation: People with lower cognitive abilities may be more likely to contract COVID-19 because they're more likely to put themselves in harm's way.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"We consider such a relationship plausible; however, it would not explain why the observed deficits varied in scale with respiratory symptom severity," the researchers wrote. "We also note that the large and socioeconomically diverse nature of the cohort enabled us to include many potentially confounding variables in our analysis."</p>
San Diego-area hospitals treat coronavirus patients during COVID-19 pandemic
Credit: Mario Tama/Getty Images<p>Only time and further research will tell whether COVID-19 leaves people with lasting cognitive deficits. Scientists are already establishing long-term research projects to answer these questions, such as the <a href="https://www.cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">COVID-19 Brain Study</a>, which aims to monitor the long-term health of 50,000 participants who have tested positive for the disease.</p><p>If you've been diagnosed with COVID-19 and want to enroll in the study, visit <a href="https://www.cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">cambridgebrainsciences.com/studies/covid-brain-study</a>.</p>