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Alaa Al Aswany on His Book ‘Chicago’
Question: What is ‘Chicago’ about?
al Aswany: This is a novel of a place, because the novel of place is a category in fiction, you see? And the place here is the Department of Histology in the University of Illinois in Chicago, and you have American characters, you have Egyptian characters who are immigrants, and you have Egyptian students who are newcomers from Egypt, and it’s a very, very wide variation of characters’ problems, human sufferings, and how both culture could see each other, you see, and what is the problem, what is the right formula for immigration, you see, because I believe that there is a right formula for immigration. To get integrated to your new country, a new culture, and to be part of this new society, and to keep your roots and your heritage at the same time, it is not easy to achieve this right formula of immigration, but it is possible, you see. My characters failed to have this right formula. You have one person who just decided to cut off his roots and you have another person who is suffering and asking himself, at the age of 60, if that was a right decision to leave Egypt, especially that this was related to a very true love story he had with a female activist in Egypt who accused him to be a coward who left his country and he was living for 30 years with this obsession. The president of Egypt is supposed to come to visit Chicago in the novel and this is a scene where many things happen. Mostly the things which happened [with the president] would not be very pleasant. I cannot say more.
Question: What was the inspiration for ‘Chicago’?
al Aswany: Usually, a novelist is writing his human experience, but this does not mean that he’s writing an autobiography. But he is inspired [by] what he lived, you see? And, as a dentist, I studied in Chicago, and I had a master degree in the University of Illinois in Chicago, and from the first day, I realized that I was lucky to be in Chicago because Chicago is a very rich American city in the sense of culture, in the sense that it’s very representative to the American identity and to the American dream and to the American culture. And from the first day, I said to myself that I have a very, very important opportunity and I must keep my eyes open. I must get exposed to the whole experience in Chicago. There were more buildings and you see more [evoluted] way to control things, but more evolution in science, you see, in the dental school, for example. But the human experience is the same. For example, the feelings of an Arab immigrant in America, I tried to present this in Chicago. I tried to explain this, and I tried to understand before writing, you see, I had to decide if… when I was studying in the US, if I’m going to get back to Egypt or I’m going to stay in America, and it was very essential for me then to meet many, many Arab immigrants, and I did, and especially Egyptian immigrants. And I think it was very useful. That’s how I did draw these characters of immigrants because I tried to understand how do they think, how do they suffer. The situation has become more acute, in the medical [term], after 9/11, you see, but I believe that 9/11 did not create the problem. I mean, it just, the problem was there, but the 9/11 just pushed the problem to the surface, to be visible.
Question: How did you develop characters?
al Aswany: I was inspired by real people, but I do not copy some people in the book. I mean, it’s very evident, but sometimes I must explain this clearly. I was inspired by many people I met, by some American professors I met, by some Egyptian immigrants, by some Egyptian students in the universities, in the University of Illinois, so all these people are inspired, or these characters are inspired by real people. I think that it was very, very inspiring to see… I was working in the department where almost every ethnic group on earth was represented, you see? We had Japanese people, Chinese people, people from Russia, Arab people, Egyptians – we had everybody working in the department, and that was really a wonderful [idea] for me, I mean, because that’s how, I think this is one of the American most important point, is that to be able, in America, to be able to receive people, very different people and to make this wonderful mix, you see, which is very successful, and also I think that I learned in the dental school many things that were very useful to me, not only in dentistry, you see? I remember the first time I sat with my American professor to write my thesis and he told me that what is very important in writing a thesis is what you can say in two words, you don’t have to say it in three words, and I said to myself, that’s exactly what I need for literature, you see. And I was, I think also I learned in America the know how of success, that I think this is very American, you see. I think this is why America is having all these achievements, because you learn in America to concentrate and to see clearly what you want to do and how to overcome the barriers and how to work very hard in the right direction, and I think I did learn this, and that was very useful to me both in literature and in medicine as well.
Question: What should readers take away from ‘Chicago’?
al Aswany: I found, when I was reading, or writing “Chicago,” I made a big research about many things, and then I found an instruction made by the American Army during the Vietnam War to, that was an instruction to the American soldiers, and it was, it said, “When you shoot, do not look at the eyes.” And I found this very significant. You see, why do you tell your soldier, when you shoot somebody, do not look at this eyes? And I found this, it makes sense to me because if you look at the eyes of somebody you’re going to kill, you’re going to see the human being, and if you’re going to see the human being, you will never be able to kill, you see? And you must dehumanize your victim, you see? You must think about your victim as somebody who is not like you, who is an enemy, who is a Jew, who is a Muslim, who is an Arab, who is… You see? To be able to kill him. And I find, and I wrote this even in some, in the speech I made in Austria, because I had a Bruno Chriski award. I wrote this in my speech, that… So, the role of literature, in my opinion, is exactly the contrary. Our role as fiction writers is to call the people to look at the eyes, you see? To see what is human, to humanize the people. Accordingly, we are going to learn much more about each other, and, accordingly, we’re going to get rid of all these kinds of stereotypes and bad images about other people. We’re going to learn that we are much alike and we have many things in common and we are, in the end, human beings.
Alaa Al Aswany explains how a University of Illinois Histology department becomes a microcosm for the world.
If machines develop consciousness, or if we manage to give it to them, the human-robot dynamic will forever be different.
- Does AI—and, more specifically, conscious AI—deserve moral rights? In this thought exploration, evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins, ethics and tech professor Joanna Bryson, philosopher and cognitive scientist Susan Schneider, physicist Max Tegmark, philosopher Peter Singer, and bioethicist Glenn Cohen all weigh in on the question of AI rights.
- Given the grave tragedy of slavery throughout human history, philosophers and technologists must answer this question ahead of technological development to avoid humanity creating a slave class of conscious beings.
- One potential safeguard against that? Regulation. Once we define the context in which AI requires rights, the simplest solution may be to not build that thing.
Duke University researchers might have solved a half-century old problem.
- Duke University researchers created a hydrogel that appears to be as strong and flexible as human cartilage.
- The blend of three polymers provides enough flexibility and durability to mimic the knee.
- The next step is to test this hydrogel in sheep; human use can take at least three years.
Duke researchers have developed the first gel-based synthetic cartilage with the strength of the real thing. A quarter-sized disc of the material can withstand the weight of a 100-pound kettlebell without tearing or losing its shape.
Photo: Feichen Yang.<p>That's the word from a team in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Duke University. Their <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adfm.202003451" target="_blank">new paper</a>, published in the journal,<em> Advanced Functional Materials</em>, details this exciting evolution of this frustrating joint.<br></p><p>Researchers have sought materials strong and versatile enough to repair a knee since at least the seventies. This new hydrogel, comprised of three polymers, might be it. When two of the polymers are stretched, a third keeps the entire structure intact. When pulled 100,000 times, the cartilage held up as well as materials used in bone implants. The team also rubbed the hydrogel against natural cartilage a million times and found it to be as wear-resistant as the real thing. </p><p>The hydrogel has the appearance of Jell-O and is comprised of 60 percent water. Co-author, Feichen Yang, <a href="https://today.duke.edu/2020/06/lab-first-cartilage-mimicking-gel-strong-enough-knees" target="_blank">says</a> this network of polymers is particularly durable: "Only this combination of all three components is both flexible and stiff and therefore strong." </p><p> As with any new material, a lot of testing must be conducted. They don't foresee this hydrogel being implanted into human bodies for at least three years. The next step is to test it out in sheep. </p><p>Still, this is an exciting step forward in the rehabilitation of one of our trickiest joints. Given the potential reward, the wait is worth it. </p><p><span></span>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
What would it be like to experience the 4th dimension?
Physicists have understood at least theoretically, that there may be higher dimensions, besides our normal three. The first clue came in 1905 when Einstein developed his theory of special relativity. Of course, by dimensions we’re talking about length, width, and height. Generally speaking, when we talk about a fourth dimension, it’s considered space-time. But here, physicists mean a spatial dimension beyond the normal three, not a parallel universe, as such dimensions are mistaken for in popular sci-fi shows.
An algorithm may allow doctors to assess PTSD candidates for early intervention after traumatic ER visits.
- 10-15% of people visiting emergency rooms eventually develop symptoms of long-lasting PTSD.
- Early treatment is available but there's been no way to tell who needs it.
- Using clinical data already being collected, machine learning can identify who's at risk.
The psychological scars a traumatic experience can leave behind may have a more profound effect on a person than the original traumatic experience. Long after an acute emergency is resolved, victims of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) continue to suffer its consequences.
In the U.S. some 30 million patients are annually treated in emergency departments (EDs) for a range of traumatic injuries. Add to that urgent admissions to the ED with the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Health experts predict that some 10 percent to 15 percent of these people will develop long-lasting PTSD within a year of the initial incident. While there are interventions that can help individuals avoid PTSD, there's been no reliable way to identify those most likely to need it.
That may now have changed. A multi-disciplinary team of researchers has developed a method for predicting who is most likely to develop PTSD after a traumatic emergency-room experience. Their study is published in the journal Nature Medicine.
70 data points and machine learning
Image source: Creators Collective/Unsplash
Study lead author Katharina Schultebraucks of Columbia University's Department Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons says:
"For many trauma patients, the ED visit is often their sole contact with the health care system. The time immediately after a traumatic injury is a critical window for identifying people at risk for PTSD and arranging appropriate follow-up treatment. The earlier we can treat those at risk, the better the likely outcomes."
The new PTSD test uses machine learning and 70 clinical data points plus a clinical stress-level assessment to develop a PTSD score for an individual that identifies their risk of acquiring the condition.
Among the 70 data points are stress hormone levels, inflammatory signals, high blood pressure, and an anxiety-level assessment. Says Schultebraucks, "We selected measures that are routinely collected in the ED and logged in the electronic medical record, plus answers to a few short questions about the psychological stress response. The idea was to create a tool that would be universally available and would add little burden to ED personnel."
Researchers used data from adult trauma survivors in Atlanta, Georgia (377 individuals) and New York City (221 individuals) to test their system.
Of this cohort, 90 percent of those predicted to be at high risk developed long-lasting PTSD symptoms within a year of the initial traumatic event — just 5 percent of people who never developed PTSD symptoms had been erroneously identified as being at risk.
On the other side of the coin, 29 percent of individuals were 'false negatives," tagged by the algorithm as not being at risk of PTSD, but then developing symptoms.
Image source: Külli Kittus/Unsplash
Schultebraucks looks forward to more testing as the researchers continue to refine their algorithm and to instill confidence in the approach among ED clinicians: "Because previous models for predicting PTSD risk have not been validated in independent samples like our model, they haven't been adopted in clinical practice." She expects that, "Testing and validation of our model in larger samples will be necessary for the algorithm to be ready-to-use in the general population."
"Currently only 7% of level-1 trauma centers routinely screen for PTSD," notes Schultebraucks. "We hope that the algorithm will provide ED clinicians with a rapid, automatic readout that they could use for discharge planning and the prevention of PTSD." She envisions the algorithm being implemented in the future as a feature of electronic medical records.
The researchers also plan to test their algorithm at predicting PTSD in people whose traumatic experiences come in the form of health events such as heart attacks and strokes, as opposed to visits to the emergency department.