What Will the World Look Like Without the Traditional Nuclear Family?
Robots and computers will not just eliminate our jobs; they will also dissolve important aspects of the family and our pair-bonded partnerships.
Robots and computers will not just eliminate our jobs; they will also dissolve important aspects of the family and our pair-bonded partnerships. After all, one of the reasons why families stay close is because they are functionally like “military platoons,” struggling to survive in hostile environments with limited resources. Nineteenth century theories, like Friedrich Engels', suggested that nuclear families were a product of industrialization, but more recent anthropology reverses this order — suggesting instead that industrialization was so successful in Europe because nuclear families facilitated it.
Anthropologists Timothy Earle and Allen W. Johnson studied hundreds of human societies, in their Evolution of Human Societies, and discovered that the nuclear family is the default form of human organization, because it allows for maximally flexible management of resources, limited demands on those resources, and trustworthy social ties. Some suggest that the nuclear family is the original human institution — arguably it’s not an institution at all, but a biological individual, distributed through space and time. But if the traditional niche of limited resource competition is transformed by technology, then the family changes too.
Children will still need to be apprenticed, and socialized, and family members will still love each other, so some features of the family will continue. But wherever members cannot get along, they need not stay locked in the historical nuclear unit of needful reciprocity. Even positive nepotism, like family businesses, which forge strong, albeit difficult, bonds will not exist in a post labor system. When you don’t need each other to survive, then you don’t endure each other as well either. It would be interesting to do a social science study on very wealthy families to determine the relative strength of their family bonds. It’s an empirical question, really, but I’ll wager money that the bonds between the wealthy are weaker than those between the underprivileged.
All of this is already happening, of course. More than half of every marriage ends in divorce, and families are now composed and recomposed in impermanent patterns. When women were no longer financially dependent on men, they did not stay in unsatisfactory partnerships.
Of course, maybe this is all for the good. Removing the codependency of families, vis a vis government-supplied basic resources, frees people up to find and compose their own “families” (fictive kin). So too, in the realm of romance, we will have less pragmatic justification for pair-bonds, and people will choose to be with each other for disinterested reasons. I confess that I’m suspicious of the strength of such disinterested bonds, but a great many people will welcome the new machine era of no-strings-attached love.
All of this is already happening, of course. More than half of every marriage ends in divorce, and families are now composed and recomposed in impermanent patterns. When women were no longer financially dependent on men, they did not stay in unsatisfactory partnerships. Presumably this pattern will extrapolate out to other relationships once we’re all unemployed.
Sexuality will prosper in the second machine age. Nothing kills a libido like a 10-hour workday. Now imagine the sexual possibilities of a post-rat-race world. Talk about actualizing your potential! Starting with widely available birth control in the 20th century, sexuality disconnected from procreation. One suspects that it will continue its trajectory of connoisseur-level exploration in the second machine age. Once robots take our jobs, we will all become free to pursue our Tantric aspirations for all-day coitus.
Of course, one of the great aphrodisiacs in the genetic intrigue of sexual selection is wealth and power. Just as female pea-hens have been drawn to preening peacocks, so too human women have been drawn to wealthy tycoons. But presumably all that will diminish when entrepreneurial innovation and management-class wealth is reduced. Thankfully, humans also find creative talent very attractive in a mate, and that resource will be in much greater abundance when we’re all unemployed.
Stephen T. Asma is Professor of Philosophy at Columbia College Chicago, where he is also Senior Fellow of the Research Group in Mind, Science and Culture. He is the author of ten books, including The Evolution of Mind and Against Fairness and writes regularly for The New York Times, the Chronicle of Higher Education, and Skeptic magazine. Asma is also a blues/jazz musician who has played onstage with many musical artists, including Bo Diddley and Buddy Guy. His website is www.stephenasma.com
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
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