Promiscuity is an interesting subject. There was a time, in the United States at least, when there was a pronounced double-standard about "sleeping around": women who had many sex partners were regarded as sluts, and men who behaved similarly were admired for their sexual prowess and approvingly called studs. In locker-room bravado, men were likely to exaggerate the number of their sexual encounters, while women would tend to do the reverse. But in the age of AIDS , the double-standard is receding, and men who have multiple sex partners are now increasingly seen as reckless, amoral cads—not just by women but by their fellow men.
The latest research on college students shows that what remains of a double standard can cut either way. In the College Social Life Survey of 20,000 students, researchers found that "a majority of college men still judge their female colleagues more harshly than they do fellow male classmates for the same sexual behavior: 63% of men say they lose respect for women who hook up frequently, and only 41% say they feel the same way about men who engage in the same behavior. But the majority of women hold a reverse double standard, assessing men's casual sexual behavior more harshly then other women's. More than 70% say they lose respect for men who engage in casual sex, while less than 60% lose respect for other women."
Condoned or not, promiscuity is part of the rich tapestry of human sexual behavior, and its incidence around the world in 48 countries has been documented in a large study called The International Sexuality Description Project. In today's Dollars and Sex blog post, economist Marina Adshade looks for a correlation between promiscuity and affluence. The post includes a quick self-assessment test so that you can see where your sexual behavior places you on the international scale of promiscuity.
Tomorrow Adshade will look at the connection between promiscuity and happiness, and the result may surprise you.
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
Do you have a magnetic compass in your head?
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