Scientists propose blasting space junk out of orbit with powerful plasma beam
Researchers at Japan's Tohoku University might be clearing the way for space travel.
- Japanese researchers have developed a magnetic nozzle plasma thruster that could clean up our atmosphere.
- The satellite solves a long-standing issue by including two thrusters to ensure junk is pushed out of orbit.
- While the project is not without risks, it marks a potential solution for the growing problem of space debris.
Humans have some crazy ideas. On occasion, a radical vision becomes commonplace, such as speaking a few words into a device in your palm and immediately connecting to someone on the other side of the planet. We forget what an incredible moment we're living through when the algorithms are invisible. It's taken quite a bit of work to get here.
Other ideas, however, seem more a band-aid to a solution that should be solved by other means. Sucking carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and into space is a recurrent answer to climate change, instead of accepting the reality of finite resources and adjusting accordingly.
Space too has plenty of pollution. Addressing this problem, researchers at Tohoku University in Japan might have stumbled across a solution that appeals to Star Wars fantasies while providing real-world utility: shooting a plasma beam at space debris to push it further into space.
Thankfully space is vast, otherwise every night we'd see the over 8,000 tons of junk floating out there—a problem, as the graph below shows, that is only getting worse. In just over six decades of interstellar exploration humans have launched over 42,000 tracked objects into space. Of the 23,000 still out there, roughly 1,200 remain operational.
While this problem will likely never affect most of us, it does limit our ability to send more satellites into orbit. If you think texting drivers are bad, just wait until you're trying to reach Mars when free-floating space junk veers into your lane.
Blasting junk sounds simple, yet until now researchers have run into the same issue: the satellite shooting the beam would by necessity (aka Newton's third law of motion) move in the opposite direction, reducing the force required to move the junk out of the way.
The answer? That resides in one of the greatest sentences in any research paper ever:
By employing a magnetic nozzle plasma thruster having two open source exits, bi-directional plasma ejection can be achieved using a single electric propulsion device.
By sending an equally powerful beam in the opposite direction, the satellite could hover in place, and even accelerate and decelerate as needed. Remote controllers would manage the trajectory of the junk.
Plasma, which comes from the Greek word for "moldable substance," is (alongside solid, liquid, and gas) a fundamental state of nature. Plasma does not freely exist on earth, but is generated from excitable events such as lighting and neon lights, or even in your plasma television. Plasma produce electric currents and magnetic fields. The sun's interior is one example of fully ionized plasma.
Plasma makes for a perfect remedy for combating space debris because, as the team, led by associate professor Kazunori Takahashi in the Department of Electrical Engineering, writes, the problem is not going to correct itself. In fact, it's going to get worse.
If remedial action is not taken in the near future, it will be difficult to prevent the mass of debris increasing, and the production rate of new debris resulting from collisions will exceed the loss rate due to natural orbital decay.
Takahashi says that his helicon plasma thruster will be able to "undertake long operations performed at a high-power level." The technology is not without risks, however. A developmental risk involves mounting two propulsion systems on a single satellite. Ejecting plasma through ion-gridded thrusters is also a concern, as the force of the beams could quickly erode the entire structure.
In laboratory experiments, the thruster is operational in acceleration and deceleration modes, as well as space debris removal mode. While the map is not the territory, it is an exciting time to be orbiting the planet. Now if only we could blast the garbage from our oceans, we might make serious progress.
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Whether or not women think beards are sexy has to do with "moral disgust"
- A new study found that women perceive men with facial hair to be more attractive as well as physically and socially dominant.
- Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength, social assertiveness, and formidability.
- Women who display higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, are more likely to prefer hairy faces.
Beards and perceptions of masculinity<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg0MC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NzkxMjM3N30.cH-GqNwP5GVqvstgJWAhBPn1B_lYpVEAI0I7iax7EQw/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C1900%2C0%2C849&height=700" id="caae6" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="cb0a355a4e8e1899789bc45f3f7aef56" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Photo Credit: Wikimedia<p>The study used 919 American (mostly white) women ages 18-70 who rated 30 pictures of men they were shown with various stages of facial hair growth. The photographs depicted men with faces that had been digitally altered to look more feminine or more masculine, with a beard and without a beard. The women rated the men according to perceived attractiveness for long-term and short-term relationships. The study found that the more facial hair the men had, the higher the men were rated on their attractiveness, particularly for their suitability for a long-term relationship.</p><p>Part of this might be attributed to facial masculinity — i.e. protruding brow ridge, wide cheekbones, thick jawline, and deeply set narrow eyes — which conveys information to a woman about a man's underlying health and formidability. Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength and social assertiveness. It can also indicate a man with a superior immune response. The researchers suggested that their findings favoring bearded men could be due to the fact that facial hair enhances the masculine facial features on a man's face, like creating the illusion of a thicker jaw line. This could communicate direct benefits to women like resources and protection that would enhance survival among mothers and their infants. In other words, while a beard doesn't mean superior genetics in and of itself, it might be a primitive, ornamental way of saying, "Hey girl, I'm a testosterone-fueled lean, mean, pathogen fighting machine." <br></p><p>It could also be that a beard becomes its own destiny. The researchers in this study cite prior research that found that by growing a beard, men felt more masculine and had higher levels of serum testosterone, which was linked to a higher level of social dominance. They also tended to subscribe to more old-school beliefs about gender roles in their relationships with women as compared to men with clean-shaven faces.<span></span><br></p>
What does disgust have to do with beard preference?<p>Obviously, not all women dig beards. The researchers were particularly interested in what traits make a women prefer bearded men over clean-shaven faces. They looked into several factors including a woman's disgust levels on various concepts, her desire to become pregnant, and her exposure to facial hair in her personal life. </p><p>According to the study, women who were not into facial hair were turned-off by potential parasites or other critters they imagined could be in the hair or skin. Women ranking high on this "ectoparasite disgust" scale might have viewed beards as a sign of poor grooming habits. However, women who ranked higher in levels of "pathogen" did find the bearded men to be desirable, possibly because they perceived beards as a signal of good health and immune function. An intriguing discovery in the study was links to morality. Women who displayed higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, were more likely to prefer hairy faces. The authors opined that this could reflect a link between beardedness, politically conservative outlooks, and traditional views regarding performances of masculinity in heterosexual relationships.</p>
Additional findings<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg1My9vcmlnaW4uZ2lmIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNDI1NjUyOX0.P9B8WbmJR0q4nfzYZKbuNSA-2SAigVWJgrQE-_Gxlds/img.gif?width=980" id="49143" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2ed3b1d6f20fc170bf2974646e565e8d" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />Giphy<p>The correlations that existed between married and single women's rating on the attractiveness of beards were not particularly clear, although the researchers noted that single and married women who wanted children tended to find beards more attractive than the women who didn't want children. They also found that women with bearded husbands found beards to be more attractive, which might indicate that social exposure to beards influences how desirable they are perceived of as being. Or it could be that men with wives who like beards grow beards.</p><p>It's important to note that culture plays a huge role in how attractive women perceive certain male characteristics as being. This study looked at a small, culturally specific group of American women, so no big, universal claims should be made about masculinity, facial hair, and male desirability to women. However, research like this is important in highlighting how human grooming decisions are driven by much more than fashion trends. Sociobiological, economic, and ecological factors all play a part in the way we choose to present ourselves.</p>
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