Scientists propose blasting space junk out of orbit with powerful plasma beam

Researchers at Japan's Tohoku University might be clearing the way for space travel.

  • Japanese researchers have developed a magnetic nozzle plasma thruster that could clean up our atmosphere.
  • The satellite solves a long-standing issue by including two thrusters to ensure junk is pushed out of orbit.
  • While the project is not without risks, it marks a potential solution for the growing problem of space debris.

Humans have some crazy ideas. On occasion, a radical vision becomes commonplace, such as speaking a few words into a device in your palm and immediately connecting to someone on the other side of the planet. We forget what an incredible moment we're living through when the algorithms are invisible. It's taken quite a bit of work to get here.

Other ideas, however, seem more a band-aid to a solution that should be solved by other means. Sucking carbon dioxide out of the atmosphere and into space is a recurrent answer to climate change, instead of accepting the reality of finite resources and adjusting accordingly.

Space too has plenty of pollution. Addressing this problem, researchers at Tohoku University in Japan might have stumbled across a solution that appeals to Star Wars fantasies while providing real-world utility: shooting a plasma beam at space debris to push it further into space.

Thankfully space is vast, otherwise every night we'd see the over 8,000 tons of junk floating out there—a problem, as the graph below shows, that is only getting worse. In just over six decades of interstellar exploration humans have launched over 42,000 tracked objects into space. Of the 23,000 still out there, roughly 1,200 remain operational.

While this problem will likely never affect most of us, it does limit our ability to send more satellites into orbit. If you think texting drivers are bad, just wait until you're trying to reach Mars when free-floating space junk veers into your lane.

Blasting junk sounds simple, yet until now researchers have run into the same issue: the satellite shooting the beam would by necessity (aka Newton's third law of motion) move in the opposite direction, reducing the force required to move the junk out of the way.

The answer? That resides in one of the greatest sentences in any research paper ever:

By employing a magnetic nozzle plasma thruster having two open source exits, bi-directional plasma ejection can be achieved using a single electric propulsion device.

By sending an equally powerful beam in the opposite direction, the satellite could hover in place, and even accelerate and decelerate as needed. Remote controllers would manage the trajectory of the junk.

Plasma, which comes from the Greek word for "moldable substance," is (alongside solid, liquid, and gas) a fundamental state of nature. Plasma does not freely exist on earth, but is generated from excitable events such as lighting and neon lights, or even in your plasma television. Plasma produce electric currents and magnetic fields. The sun's interior is one example of fully ionized plasma.

Plasma makes for a perfect remedy for combating space debris because, as the team, led by associate professor Kazunori Takahashi in the Department of Electrical Engineering, writes, the problem is not going to correct itself. In fact, it's going to get worse.

If remedial action is not taken in the near future, it will be difficult to prevent the mass of debris increasing, and the production rate of new debris resulting from collisions will exceed the loss rate due to natural orbital decay.

Takahashi says that his helicon plasma thruster will be able to "undertake long operations performed at a high-power level." The technology is not without risks, however. A developmental risk involves mounting two propulsion systems on a single satellite. Ejecting plasma through ion-gridded thrusters is also a concern, as the force of the beams could quickly erode the entire structure.

In laboratory experiments, the thruster is operational in acceleration and deceleration modes, as well as space debris removal mode. While the map is not the territory, it is an exciting time to be orbiting the planet. Now if only we could blast the garbage from our oceans, we might make serious progress.

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Why Epicurean ideas suit the challenges of modern secular life

Sure, Epicureans focused on seeking pleasure – but they also did so much more.

Antonio Masiello/Getty Images
Culture & Religion

'The pursuit of Happiness' is a famous phrase in a famous document, the United States Declaration of Independence (1776). But few know that its author was inspired by an ancient Greek philosopher, Epicurus. Thomas Jefferson considered himself an Epicurean. He probably found the phrase in John Locke, who, like Thomas Hobbes, David Hume and Adam Smith, had also been influenced by Epicurus.

Nowadays, educated English-speaking urbanites might call you an epicure if you complain to a waiter about over-salted soup, and stoical if you don't. In the popular mind, an epicure fine-tunes pleasure, consuming beautifully, while a stoic lives a life of virtue, pleasure sublimated for good. But this doesn't do justice to Epicurus, who came closest of all the ancient philosophers to understanding the challenges of modern secular life.

Epicureanism competed with Stoicism to dominate Greek and Roman culture. Born in 341 BCE, only six years after Plato's death, Epicurus came of age at a good time to achieve influence. He was 18 when Alexander the Great died at the tail end of classical Greece – identified through its collection of independent city-states – and the emergence of the dynastic rule that spread across the Persian Empire. Zeno, who founded Stoicism in Cyprus and later taught it in Athens, lived during the same period. Later, the Roman Stoic Seneca both critiqued Epicurus and quoted him favourably.

Today, these two great contesting philosophies of ancient times have been reduced to attitudes about comfort and pleasure – will you send back the soup or not? That very misunderstanding tells me that Epicurean ideas won, hands down, though bowdlerised, without the full logic of the philosophy. Epicureans were concerned with how people felt. The Stoics focused on a hierarchy of value. If the Stoics had won, stoical would now mean noble and an epicure would be trivial.

Epicureans did focus on seeking pleasure – but they did so much more. They talked as much about reducing pain – and even more about being rational. They were interested in intelligent living, an idea that has evolved in our day to mean knowledgeable consumption. But equating knowing what will make you happiest with knowing the best wine means Epicurus is misunderstood.

The rationality he wedded to democracy relied on science. We now know Epicurus mainly through a poem, De rerum natura, or 'On the Nature of Things', a 7,400 line exposition by the Roman philosopher Lucretius, who lived c250 years after Epicurus. The poem was circulated only among a small number of people of letters until it was said to be rediscovered in the 15th century, when it radically challenged Christianity.

Its principles read as astonishingly modern, down to the physics. In six books, Lucretius states that everything is made of invisible particles, space and time are infinite, nature is an endless experiment, human society began as a battle to survive, there is no afterlife, religions are cruel delusions, and the universe has no clear purpose. The world is material – with a smidgen of free will. How should we live? Rationally, by dropping illusion. False ideas largely make us unhappy. If we minimise the pain they cause, we maximise our pleasure.

Secular moderns are so Epicurean that we might not hear this thunderclap. He didn't stress perfectionism or fine discriminations in pleasure – sending back the soup. He understood what the Buddhists call samsara, the suffering of endless craving. Pleasures are poisoned when we require that they do not end. So, for example, it is natural to enjoy sex, but sex will make you unhappy if you hope to possess your lover for all time.

Epicurus also seems uncannily modern in his attitude to parenting. Children are likely to bring at least as much pain as pleasure, he noted, so you might want to skip it. Modern couples who choose to be 'child-free' fit within the largely Epicurean culture we have today. Does it make sense to tell people to pursue their happiness and then expect them to take on decades of responsibility for other humans? Well, maybe, if you seek meaning. Our idea of meaning is something like the virtue embraced by the Stoics, who claimed it would bring you happiness.

Both the Stoics and the Epicureans understood that some good things are better than others. Thus you necessarily run into choices, and the need to forgo one good to protect or gain another. When you make those choices wisely, you'll be happier. But the Stoics think you'll be acting in line with a grand plan by a just grand designer, and the Epicureans don't.

As secular moderns, we pursue short-term happiness and achieve deeper pleasure in work well done. We seek the esteem of peers. It all makes sense in the light of science, which has documented that happiness for most of us arises from social ties – not the perfect rose garden or a closet of haute couture. Epicurus would not only appreciate the science, but was a big fan of friendship.

The Stoics and Epicureans diverge when it comes to politics. Epicurus thought politics brought only frustration. The Stoics believed that you should engage in politics as virtuously as you can. Here in the US where I live, half the country refrains from voting in non-presidential years, which seems Epicurean at heart.

Yet Epicurus was a democrat. In a garden on the outskirts of Athens, he set up a school scandalously open to women and slaves – a practice that his contemporaries saw as proof of his depravity. When Jefferson advocated education for American slaves, he might have had Epicurus in mind.

I imagine Epicurus would see far more consumption than necessary in my own American life and too little self-discipline. Above all, he wanted us to take responsibility for our choices. Here he is in his Letter to Menoeceus:

For it is not drinking bouts and continuous partying and enjoying boys and women, or consuming fish and the other dainties of an extravagant table, which produce the pleasant life, but sober calculation which searches out the reasons for every choice and avoidance and drives out the opinions which are the source of the greatest turmoil for men's souls.

Do you see the 'pursuit of happiness' as a tough research project and kick yourself when you're glum? You're Epicurean. We think of the Stoics as tougher, but they provided the comfort of faith. Accept your fate, they said. Epicurus said: It's a mess. Be smarter than the rest of them. How modern can you get?Aeon counter – do not remove

This article was originally published at Aeon and has been republished under Creative Commons. Read the original article.


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