Students who think the world is just cheat less, but they need to experience justice to feel that way.
- Students in German and Turkish universities who believed the world is just cheated less than their pessimistic peers.
- The tendency to think the world is just is related to the occurence of experiences of justice.
- The findings may prove useful in helping students adjust to college life.
The world is just? That’s news to a lot of people.<p>The study is the most recent addition to a long line of work focusing on the belief in justice, our behavior, and our reactions to evidence that might suggest injustice occasionally occurs. This study focuses on a personal belief in a just world, (PBJW) rather than a general belief in a just world (GBJW). The difference between them must be highlighted.</p><p>GBJW is the stance that justice prevails all over the world and that people tend to get what they deserve. PBJW is more focused on the individual's social environment and their belief that they tend to be treated justly. While several studies show PBJW correlates with a higher sense of well-being and a variety of other positive effects, a high GBJW is associated with less life satisfaction, negative behavior, and callousness towards the suffering of <a href="https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-3216-0" target="_blank">others</a>. This study controlled for GBJW, and focused on PBJW as much as possible. </p><p>To assure that culture was not a factor, the study included students at universities in both Germany and Turkey. </p><p>The researchers gave students at the four participating universities a series of questionnaires that asked if they ever cheated in class, if they perceived the world to be just, if they though that justice always prevailed everywhere, their tendencies towards socially appropriate behavior, their life satisfaction, and if they felt like they were treated justly by their teachers and fellow students. </p><p>The answers were statistically analyzed for relationships. While some of the connections seem trivially true, others were surprising. <strong></strong></p><p>PBJW turned out to only be an indirect predictor of if a student was likely to cheat. Both a belief in a just world and a lower likelihood of cheating were mediated by the justice experiences of the students, with more of these positive experiences lowering the rate of cheating and improving their belief in justice. This was also associated with higher levels of life satisfaction. </p><p>These effects existed across all demographics in both countries. </p>
What does this mean? Is a belief in justice a self-fulfilling prophecy?<iframe width="730" height="430" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/6oMv-azHNCA" frameborder="0" allow="accelerometer; autoplay; clipboard-write; encrypted-media; gyroscope; picture-in-picture" allowfullscreen></iframe><p>In a way, it seems to be. People who have reason to think the world is just to them tend to interpret events in a way to sustain that belief and behave in a just manner. In a larger sense, the take away from this study is that experiences of justice, both from peers and instructors, is vital to student's wellbeing and understanding that the rules that exist about cheating are part of a larger, legitimate, system. </p><p>The researchers, citing previous studies on the perception of justice, note that "justice experiences (1) signal that university students are esteemed members of their social group, which in turn conveys feelings of belonging and social inclusion and (2) motivate them to accept and observe university rules and norms. These cognitive processes may thus strengthen their well-being and decrease the likelihood that they cheat."</p><p>The authors also suggest that if you want people (not only students) to act justly; consider treating them with "civility, respect, and dignity."</p><p>Sometimes, all it can take to help somebody act virtuously is to treat them well. Likewise, people treated harshly can rarely find reason to play by rules that don't protect them. The findings of this study will certainly add to the literature on how we perceive justice in the world around us, but might also help us remember that there are real consequences to our actions which can be much larger than we imagine. <strong></strong></p>
The survey, performed by Morning Consult and commissioned by Amazon, found a majority of those job seekers want to move into new industries to stay relevant.
Survey says! It's still 2020<p><span>The survey was commissioned by Amazon in advance of </span><a href="https://www.amazoncareerday.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">its 2020 Career Day</a><span>, the mega-corporation's nationwide hiring event. Career Day provides attendees the opportunity to attend fireside chats with career experts, receive one-on-one career coaching, and apply to work at various Amazon positions, while simultaneously filling the company's coffers with resumes. According to Amazon, last year's event saw 17,000 job seekers attend across six U.S. cities. This year, the event has gone digital.</span></p><p>"COVID-19 continues to affect millions of people across the country, and people are eager for the opportunity to get back to work," Beth Galetti, Amazon's senior vice president of human resources, said in <a href="https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20200909005618/en/Amazon-Announces-Career-Day-2020-33000-Corporate" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">a release</a>. "We're continuing to hire people from all backgrounds and at all skill levels, and we're glad to be able to mobilize our team of experienced recruiters and HR professionals to help job seekers across the country learn about opportunities at Amazon and elsewhere."</p><p>For the event, Amazon commissioned Morning Consult to take a survey of the changing job hunt dynamics and then <a href="https://blog.aboutamazon.com/job-creation-and-investment/amazon-announces-career-day-2020" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">posted the highlights on its blog</a>. The results showed that 53 percent of job seekers are on the hunt because of the coronavirus pandemic.</p><p>Unless you're a <a href="https://www.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/10/131016-otzi-ice-man-mummy-five-facts/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">prehistoric ice man</a>, frozen in time since the halcyon days 2019, these results will hardly be surprising. Unemployment plunged to unprecedented levels in April of this year, a direct consequence of economic shutdowns enacted to repress the transmission of novel coronavirus. Spotty as they were, those shutdowns may have <a href="https://www.cbsnews.com/news/us-economy-shutdown-coronavirus-saved-2-7-million-lives/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">saved 2.7 million lives</a>; however, many furloughed <a href="https://www.cnbc.com/2020/08/03/nearly-half-of-workers-believe-temporary-layoff-will-become-permanent.html#:~:text=Work-,Nearly%20half%20of%20all%20furloughed%20workers%20now,temporary%20layoff%20will%20become%20permanent&text=In%20April%2C%20roughly%202%20in,jobs%20within%20a%20few%20months." target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">workers believe those temporary layoffs have become permanent</a>. For others, they have.</p>
Did coronavirus kick start the future of work?<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="e86d207511b7cf45dca553b1e0812a0e"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/AO0B2onfP9I?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>The survey's more interesting findings inform on how job seekers have been approaching their search. About a third of those surveyed believe their current work did not utilize either their skills or training, and 61 percent are actively looking for work in a different industry. Industries singled out include healthcare and technology.</p><p>To stay relevant, these job seekers are also seeking opportunities to gain new skills. The survey found that nearly a third of them believe technical skills will a key factor in a successful search. Nearly half would change jobs if their new employer offered upskill training.</p><p>These results provide a clue that <a href="https://bigthink.com/coronavirus/universal-basic-income-coronavirus" target="_self">the pandemic may have accelerated predicted employment trends</a> of the 21<sup>st</sup>-century. Many experts have warned that automation and other technological advancements have the potential to take millions of jobs from human workers. Kalus Schwab, founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum, dubbed this seismic shift the Fourth Industrial Revolution. </p><p>As noted by the World Economic Forum in its "<a href="http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_Future_of_Jobs_2018.pdf" target="_blank">The Future of Jobs Report 2018</a>": "There are complex feedback loops between new technology, jobs and skills. New technologies can drive business growth, job creation and demand for specialist skills but they can also displace entire roles when certain tasks become obsolete or automated."</p><p>Preparations and prescriptions recommended by these experts have varied. Former Democratic president candidate <a href="https://bigthink.com/politics-current-affairs/andrew-yang-2639022603" target="_self">Andrew Yang</a> proposed a <a href="https://bigthink.com/politics-current-affairs/universal-basic-income?rebelltitem=1#rebelltitem1" target="_self">universal basic income</a>. Others, <a href="https://bigthink.com/kenzie-academy/software-engineering-school" target="_self">like the World Economic Forum and Kenzie Academy</a>, support innovative education and upskilling efforts to teach workers the hard and soft skills necessary to compete in a tech-driven market. </p><p>This forecast looks eerily similar to <a href="https://bigthink.com/coronavirus/skills-needed-for-a-job?rebelltitem=1#rebelltitem1" target="_self">a post-COVID-19 one</a>. With the pandemic scattering employees to the four winds, and home offices, employers are increasingly <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2020/06/22/small-business-tech-pandemic/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">turning to technology to survive</a>. Tech-focused companies, like Amazon, are <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/23/technology/coronavirus-facebook-amazon-youtube.html" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">thriving</a>. <a href="https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2017/05/03/the-future-of-jobs-and-jobs-training/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">These companies need workers</a> who can work alongside technology and cultivate the skills machines and AI cannot easily replicate.</p><p>This survey suggests that many of today's job seekers have intuited this paradigm shift. Hopefully, the resources and infrastructure will be available to help people develop their capacity and make the post-COVID-19 job market a more promising one.</p>
The neurodevelopmental disorder has long baffled researchers.
- Dyslexia affects up to 10 percent of the world's population.
- Though first identified in 1881, no cause has ever been discovered.
- A new study at the University of Geneva found positive results using transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS).
Credit: Billion Photos / Shutterstock<p>When 30 Hz was applied, dyslexic volunteers saw the greatest improvement in phonological processing. Interestingly, the reading abilities of those in the control group were slightly disrupted by these oscillations. The researchers speculate fast readers may have developed strategies that skip phonological processing.</p><p>The beneficial effect wasn't noticed when 60 Hz was applied. </p><p>The authors believe this research demonstrates a causal role of low-gamma oscillatory activity in the brains of dyslexics. More importantly, their work could lead to non-invasive therapeutic interventions for treating (and perhaps curing) the disorder. </p><p>Co-lead author Silvia Marchesotti, in the Department of Neuroscience at the University of Geneva, <a href="https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/09/200908142934.htm" target="_blank">says</a>, </p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"The next steps for us are to investigate whether normalizing oscillatory function in very young children could have a long-lasting effect on the organization of the reading system, but also to explore even less invasive means of correcting oscillatory activity, for instance using neurofeedback training."</p><p>One session of tCAS lasts for hours or even days—not long enough to ensure long-term change. The authors suggest multiple sessions might inspire long-term potentiation in dyslexics, however. </p><p>They also point out that tACS improved reading accuracy but not reading speed. Future studies could include multiple sessions to discover if reading speeds can be increased.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Technology is an important tool, but it will take an ecosystem of educators, students, and caregivers to make the most of it.
- The old adage that it "takes a village" has proven true for education in the time of coronavirus. What constitutes a "school" and who is considered an "educator" has changed out of necessity, but important opportunities for the future have come from these unexpected circumstances as communities have and continue to adapt.
- "The greatest human superpower is empathy," says Kaya Henderson, "the ability to deeply connect with other people and to see yourself in them and to see them in you." She argues that "a part of the reason why we are so divided in this world today is because we see people as 'other' and we don't see them as extensions of ourselves."
- While technology has become a big part of the education landscape, community is still the keystone. "I want technology to amplify and to scale excellence," Henderson says. "To amplify knowledge and to scale excellence all at the same time while paying deep attention to the human connections that are integral to education."
Estonia has combined a belief in learning with equal-access technology to create one of world's best education systems.
- Estonia became a top performer in the most recent PISA, a worldwide study of 15-year-old students' capabilities in math, reading, and science.
- PISA data showed that Estonia has done remarkably well in reducing the gap between a student's socioeconomic background and their access to quality education.
- The country's push toward providing equal-access to learning technology is a modern example of the culture's dedication to equity in education.
Estonia's cultural heirloom<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzc0Mzk5My9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MDMyNjU2OH0.rTLLp1sU-VH33gVkZD33Yn-td9wsEOE3Dm0gjoecly0/img.jpg?width=1068&coordinates=0%2C0%2C0%2C0&height=559" id="96dbe" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2a10956a524467f160f83ddaee4901c5" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
A chart showing student performance scores in reading for the 2018 PISA study.
A Tiger Leap forward<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzc0NDAyNC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NDM0MTA4Nn0.H5-_Jxe6JOldGX12EhCtz1lr4yArmlCaKHD5UBXwIkg/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C47%2C0%2C175&height=700" id="d7e87" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c391c4512ba7c5ee6533cb6a9b4a61dc" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="students and teacher at computers" />
Fourth-grade students learn computer skills in elementary school.