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Century-old vaccine may lower coronavirus deaths, finds new study
A new study suggests that an old tuberculosis vaccine may reduce the severity of coronavirus cases.
- A new study finds a tuberculosis BCG vaccination is linked to its COVID-19 mortality rate.
- More BCG vaccinations are connected to fewer severe coronavirus cases in East Germany.
- The study is preliminary and more research is needed to support the findings.
Preliminary findings from a new study show that Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), a vaccine given to kids in countries where tuberculosis is prevalent, might be able to reduce COVID-19 mortality rates.
Analyzing globally-collected coronavirus mortality data, the researchers made adjustments for income, education levels, medical services, population density, age, and more. Across all variations, they saw a clear relationship where countries which had higher rates of BCG vaccinations also had lower peak mortality rates related to the coronavirus pandemic.
The study was spearheaded by Professor Luis Escobar of Virginia Tech as well as Alvaro Molina-Cruz and Carolina Barillas-Mury from the National Institutes of Health (NIH).
Escobar, who teaches as part of the Department of Fish and Wildlife Conservation, said that the correlation they found does have some caveats.
"In our initial research, we found that countries with high rates of BCG vaccinations had lower rates of mortality," explained Escobar. "But all countries are different: Guatemala has a younger population than, say, Italy, so we had to make adjustments to the data to accommodate those differences."
In the example of Germany, the scientists were able to compare two population samples – the East German, which had older periods of BCG vaccinations (1951-1975) and the West German, which started and ended later (1961 - 1998). The data demonstrated that older East Germans were more protected from COVID-19 than their West German counterparts, exhibiting a mortality rate that was 2.9 times lower. This correlated to the possible efficacy of the BCG vaccine.
Professor Luis Escobar
Credit: Virginia Tech
"The purpose of using the BCG vaccine to protect from severe COVID-19 would be to stimulate a broad, innate, rapid-response immunity," shared Escobar, adding that previous evidence already pointed to BCG vaccines offering cross-protections not just for tuberculosis, but for a multitude of viral respiratory illnesses.
The vaccine gets its name from French microbiologists Albert Calmette and Camille Guérin, who developed it in 1919. It is widely used around the world, with 130 million people receiving it every year. It is, however, rarely given in the United States.
As the analysis is preliminary, more research is necessary to support the results and to recommend a course of action. Some clinical trials are currently underway to further investigate the role BCG vaccine might play in reducing the severity of COVID-19. The researchers hope that if further research supports the findings, the BCG vaccine might at least offer short-term protection from getting a bad case of the coronavirus. This can be especially helpful to frontline medical workers and people with compromised immune systems.
You can read the new study in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).
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The team caught a glimpse of a process that takes 18,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.
- In Italy, a team of scientists is using a highly sophisticated detector to hunt for dark matter.
- The team observed an ultra-rare particle interaction that reveals the half-life of a xenon-124 atom to be 18 sextillion years.
- The half-life of a process is how long it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei present in a sample to decay.
A study looks at the ingredients of a good scare.
Catching fear in a bottle<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDYyNzg1Ny9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyOTQwMTcyMn0.WtpJ1E_dhK2o09fBpKARynj4_p5NXeklgsXsbd7xr9w/img.jpg?width=980" id="8ff51" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="f10dd9188b173f4a36e85e9325507c6b" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Credit: Photo Boards/Unsplash<p>Previous studies have tracked physiological signs of fear arousal, but none have established a one-to-one correlation between that arousal and specific, actual fear events.</p><p>Andersen says that much of the research has been conducted in lab settings with weak fear stimuli, observing subjects as they experience things like scary videos. Scares in these situations tend to be weak and difficult to measure. Even harder to track in these situations is the link between enjoyment and fear. </p>
Eyes everywhere<iframe src="https://player.vimeo.com/video/109695164" width="100%" height="480" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="267ba87cfb8591ed5830499574d2272a"></iframe><p>Andersen and his colleagues conducted their experiments at <a href="https://dystopia.dk" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Dystopia</a> Haunted House, a commercial attraction in Vejle, Denmark constructed in an old, run-down factory. The Recreational Fear Lab has a long-standing partnership with the spook shack.</p><p>They outfitted 100 volunteers with heart monitors and sent them on their terrifying way through the 50-room horror mansion. The facility incorporates a number of fright mechanisms including frequent jump scares in which a sudden threat takes a visitor by surprise.</p><p>Researchers surreptitiously observed their participants on closed-circuit video as they made their way through the attraction. They tracked each individual's scares, scoring them for intensity according to their visible reactions. After exiting the attraction, individuals self-reported their experiences in the haunted house.</p><p>Combining these self-reports with observer notes and each participant's heart-rate data gave the researchers subjective, behavioral, and physiological insights into the ways in which fear is experienced, and when it's a good thing or not.</p>
A pair of inverted U-shapes<p>In analyzing their data, the researchers saw two separate inverted u-shape curves. One depicted participants' enjoyment based on their self-reports and observed behavior. A similar u-curve was detected in their heart rates showing that just the right amount of heartbeat acceleration is associated with fun, but too much is too much. It's the terror Goldilocks zone.</p><p>Says Andersen, "If people are not very scared, they do not enjoy the attraction as much, and the same happens if they are too scared. Instead, it seems to be the case that a 'just-right' amount of fear is central for maximizing enjoyment."</p><p>The research suggests that being scared is enjoyable when it represents just a quick minor physiological deviation from one's normal state. When it goes on too long, however, or triggers too severe a physiological change, it becomes disturbing. Game over.</p><p>Andersen notes that this is not dissimilar to the factors known to make interpersonal play enjoyable: just the right amount of uncertainty and surprise. These are, maybe not coincidentally, also the ingredients of a successful joke.</p>
A meteorite that smashed into a frozen lake in Michigan may explain the origins of life on Earth, finds study.
- A new paper reveals a meteorite that crashed in Michigan in 2018 contained organic matter.
- The findings support the panspermia theory and could explain the origins of life on Earth.
- The organic compounds on the meteorite were well-preserved.
Meteor streaks through Michigan sky<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="80b7f30820153b35fc515592d7475f53"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/EPu2qnqMYBo?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
The meteorite that smashed into Strawberry Lake carried pristine extraterrestrial organic compounds.
Credit: Field Museum