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Sex with Neanderthals helped modern humans survive, says study
A new study shows how interbreeding of modern humans and Neanderthals boosted our genomes.
- Homo Sapiens mated with Neanderthals when they left Africa for Eurasia.
- Neanderthals developed key genetic adaptations to fighting diseases.
- Modern humans have 152 genes inherited from the Neanderthals that interact with viruses.
We tend to think of the human-like people before us, like the Neanderthals, as part of our biological history that's so far removed that it has little bearing on our current lives. After all, you don't get to meet Neanderthals in the street. Or do you? For one, from 1.8% to 2.6% of the DNA in most modern people comes from the Neanderthals. A new study provides another important link - Neanderthals passed on a key genetic adaptation that kept us protected from killer viruses.
Sex between Neanderthals and homo sapiens is the reason for our genetic connection. The humans were on their way out of Africa into Eurasia, when they met the Neanderthals. Thanks to sharing a common ancestor about 500,000 to a million years prior, the sex between the species produced viable offspring.
What the new study found is that before they hooked up with modern humans, Neanderthals were in Eurasia for hundreds of thousands of years fighting off pathogens. As a result, their genomes developed an ability to survive viruses, which they gifted to us.
The study's co-author David Enard, Ph.D. from the University of Arizona explained to Inverse that interbreeding was like a quick "antidote" for the homo sapiens to protect themselves. They suddenly faced an onslaught of new viruses.
Incorporating the genetic material that was already pre-adapted from the Neanderthals gave the homo sapiens a "fast-track route for adaptation", shares Enard, adding "instead of 'reinventing the genetic wheel,' we just borrowed it from the Neanderthals."
"Neanderthal genetic material was like a protective antidote because Neanderthals had likely been infected for a long time by the same viruses that were now harmful to modern humans," says David Enard. "This long exposure means that Neanderthals had plenty of time to adapt against these viruses before modern humans showed up."
Of course, not everything went smoothly when these two species met in the distant past. The scientists think they likely infected each other with the pathogens from their environments – in what's called "the poison-antidote" model of exchanging genes. The sexual unions produced the antidote.
Poison-antidote model.Credit: Cell magazine.
The research involved creating a list of over 4,500 genes of modern humans that are involved in defending against viruses and contrasting that with the database of sequenced Neanderthal genes. The scientists found 152 genes in modern humans that were also in the Neanderthal genome. The researchers believe that these genes we got from the Neanderthals are those that interact with RNA viruses of today like hepatitis C, HIV, and influenza A.
Notably, while these genes were instrumental in human survival over time, they are not really protecting us any longer from modern viruses. This points to the fact that evolution is "an arms race," as Dr. Enard called it. It's a process where even if we manage to overcome some of them, scores of new viruses constantly spring up to attack us. It was very sobering realization for Dr. Petrov and I that our work likely implies that humans had to adapt to hundreds, if not thousands of different harmful viruses over million years of evolution," related Dr. Enard.
It also bears pointing out that modern humans get depression and cigarette addiction from the Neanderthals.
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Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
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Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
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