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2018 Nobel Prize awarded to cancer immunotherapy pioneers
In the 1990s, the two scientists made key discoveries that led to the development of promising new cancer-fighting immunotherapy drugs.
- The two researchers, from the U.S. and Japan, made key discoveries about the immune system's response to cancer.
- Their work showed how to block cancer cells from crippling white blood cells.
- Still in its early stages, immunotherapy is a promising field in cancer research.
James Allison and Tasuku Honjo have won the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their innovative work in developing immunotherapy treatments to fight cancer.
James P. Allison, 70, is the chair of the department of immunology at MD Anderson Cancer Center in Houston, Texas, and Tasuku Honjo, 76, is a professor at the Kyoto University Institute for Advanced Study in Japan. In the 1990s, the two scientists made separate breakthrough discoveries about the immune system that led to the development of immunotherapy drugs. They will share the $1 million prize.
Allison was in New York for an immunology conference when his son called early one morning to tell him the good news. An hour later, Allison and his colleagues were celebrating in a hotel room over champagne.
"It still hasn't completely dawned on me," said Allison, at a press conference. "I was a basic scientist. To have my work really impact people is one of the best things I could think about. It's everybody's dream."
Honjo also spoke about the personal satisfaction he gets from seeing his work benefit patients.
"When I'm thanked by patients who recover, I truly feel the significance of our research," Honjo said during a news conference at the Japanese university, according to Japanese news reports. He added: "I'd like to continue researching cancer for a while so that this immunotherapy will help save more cancer patients than ever before."
How immunotherapy works
Immunotherapy effectively removes the 'brakes' on the body's immune system, allowing for a certain type of white blood cell, called T-cells, to hunt down and kill cancer cells. Without immunotherapy treatment, cancer cells can deactivate T-cells by taking advantage of a switch on the cells, called an immune checkpoint. This shuts down the body's immune response and allows the cancer to spread unchecked.
Image: Nobel committee
Immunotherapies keep cancer-fighting T-cells active by blocking the immune checkpoints. In the 1990s, Allison and Honjo made key discoveries about immune checkpoints that later led to the development of immunotherapies that have proven successful in humans; Allison identified a checkpoint called CTLA-4, Honjo found another called PD-1.
The development and testing of immunotherapy drugs is still in early stages. However, immunotherapy has shown promising signs in recent years in combating several types of cancer, particularly lung cancer, even reversing the disease completely in some patients.
Photo: JONATHAN NACKSTRAND/AFP/Getty Images
Many scientists have helped develop the field of immunotherapy, but the work of Allison and Honjo helped build a foundation from which it could grow.
"I think they really deserve it," Jerome Galon, an immunologist at the Paris-based national biomedical research agency INSERM, told Nature. "You can always multiply and have many other people, but these are the obvious two first choices."
Their work "brought immunotherapy out from decades of skepticism" and has led to treatments that have improved an "untold number of people's health," Dr. Jedd Wolchok, a cancer specialist at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York, told The New York Times.
The Nobel committee wrote that scientists have been searching for ways to bolster the immune system against cancer for more than a century, but the progress was "modest" until the revolutionary work of Allison and Honjo.
"Allison's and Honjo's discoveries have added a new pillar in cancer therapy. It represents a completely new principle, because unlike previous strategies, it is not based on targeting the cancer cells, but rather the brakes — the checkpoints — of the host immune system," Klas Kärre, a member of the Nobel Committee and an immunologist at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, said in a statement. "The seminal discoveries by the two laureates constitutes a paradigmatic shift and a landmark in the fight against cancer."
What is human dignity? Here's a primer, told through 200 years of great essays, lectures, and novels.
- Human dignity means that each of our lives have an unimpeachable value simply because we are human, and therefore we are deserving of a baseline level of respect.
- That baseline requires more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose.
- We look at incredible writings from the last 200 years that illustrate the push for human dignity in regards to slavery, equality, communism, free speech and education.
The inherent worth of all human beings<p>Human dignity is the inherent worth of each individual human being. Recognizing human dignity means respecting human beings' special value—value that sets us apart from other animals; value that is intrinsic and cannot be lost.</p> <p>Liberalism—the broad political philosophy that organizes society around liberty, justice, and equality—is rooted in the idea of human dignity. Liberalism assumes each of our lives, plans, and preferences have some unimpeachable value, not because of any objective evaluation or contribution to a greater good, but simply because they belong to a human being. We are human, and therefore deserving of a baseline level of respect. </p> <p>Because so many of us take human dignity for granted—just a fact of our humanness—it's usually only when someone's dignity is ignored or violated that we feel compelled to talk about it. </p> <p>But human dignity means more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose—a freedom that can be hampered by restrictive social institutions or the tyranny of the majority. The liberal ideal of the good society is not just peaceful but also pluralistic: It is a society in which we respect others' right to think and live differently than we do.</p>
From the 19th century to today<p>With <a href="https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?year_start=1800&year_end=2019&content=human+dignity&corpus=26&smoothing=3&direct_url=t1%3B%2Chuman%20dignity%3B%2Cc0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Google Books Ngram Viewer</a>, we can chart mentions of human dignity from 1800-2019.</p><img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDg0ODU0My9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MTUwMzE4MX0.bu0D_0uQuyNLyJjfRESNhu7twkJ5nxu8pQtfa1w3hZs/img.png?width=980" id="7ef38" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9974c7bef3812fcb36858f325889e3c6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
American novelist, writer, playwright, poet, essayist and civil rights activist James Baldwin at his home in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, southern France, on November 6, 1979.
Credit: Ralph Gatti/AFP via Getty Images
The future of dignity<p>Around the world, people are still working toward the full and equal recognition of human dignity. Every year, new speeches and writings help us understand what dignity is—not only what it looks like when dignity is violated but also what it looks like when dignity is honored. In his posthumous essay, Congressman Lewis wrote, "When historians pick up their pens to write the story of the 21st century, let them say that it was your generation who laid down the heavy burdens of hate at last and that peace finally triumphed over violence, aggression and war."</p> <p>The more we talk about human dignity, the better we understand it. And the sooner we can make progress toward a shared vision of peace, freedom, and mutual respect for all. </p>
Scientists find that bursts of gamma rays may exceed the speed of light and cause time-reversibility.
- Astrophysicists propose that gamma-ray bursts may exceed the speed of light.
- The superluminal jets may also be responsible for time-reversibility.
- The finding doesn't go against Einstein's theory because this effect happens in the jet medium not a vacuum.
Jet bursting out of a blazar. Black-hole-powered galaxies called blazars are the most common sources detected by NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope.
Cosmic death beams: Understanding gamma ray bursts<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="cu2knVEk" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="c6cfd20fdf31c82cb206ade8ce21ba3f"> <div id="botr_cu2knVEk_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/cu2knVEk-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/cu2knVEk-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Philosophers have been asking the question for hundreds of years. Now neuroscientists are joining the quest to find out.
- The debate over whether or not humans have free will is centuries old and ongoing. While studies have confirmed that our brains perform many tasks without conscious effort, there remains the question of how much we control and when it matters.
- According to Dr. Uri Maoz, it comes down to what your definition of free will is and to learning more about how we make decisions versus when it is ok for our brain to subconsciously control our actions and movements.
- "If we understand the interplay between conscious and unconscious," says Maoz, "it might help us realize what we can control and what we can't."
We’ve mapped a million previously undiscovered galaxies beyond the Milky Way. Take the virtual tour here.
See the most detailed survey of the southern sky ever carried out using radio waves.
Astronomers have mapped about a million previously undiscovered galaxies beyond the Milky Way, in the most detailed survey of the southern sky ever carried out using radio waves.
A new study shows our planet is much closer to the supermassive black hole at the galaxy's center than previously estimated.