Why do people prefer dogs over cats? They're more controllable, study finds.
The ancient Egyptians worshiped cats as gods. Cats have never forgotten this.
- Prior research and statistical evidence suggests that dogs are more popular than cats as pets. Why?
- Research from the New York Institute of Technology says that it has to do with a concept called psychological ownership.
- Psychological ownership has several sources, but the study found that people felt more psychological ownership over dogs than cats due to a sense that dogs are more controllable.
There's no way to say this without making some people upset: When looking for a four-legged companion, most humans prefer dogs over cats. Studies have shown that self-identified dog people tend to be less neurotic, less likely to suppress their emotions, and tend to have overall higher scores of wellbeing than cat people. Young children significantly prefer dogs over cats. And in the U.S., 60.2 million households have a dog, while about 47.1 million have cats.
In a new paper titled, "Dogs have masters, cats have staff: Consumers' psychological ownership and their economic valuation of pets," Dr. Colleen Kirk of the New York Institute of Technology explains why this discrepancy exists. It has to do with the degree of psychological ownership we feel toward our pets.
Rather than legal ownership, psychological ownership refers to what we feel to be ours. You could, for instance, have a favorite booth that you like to sit in at a neighborhood restaurant. If somebody were to be sitting there when you walked in, you might feel annoyed; obviously, they have the right to sit there, but that's your booth!
We feel the same way about pets. We treat pets like family, but we also treat them like living possessions. A sense of psychological ownership comes from two primary sources: self-investment, which differs from financial investment and deals more with the time and energy we devote to something; and control. When we can control something, we tend to feel that it belongs to us. Typically, this works with physical objects. Cars, for example, are only controlled by the owner. Nobody feels that they "own" a car they can't even unlock. Importantly, psychological ownership is connected to an emotional attachment to the target as well.
Through a series of experiments, Dr. Kirk — her findings were published in the Journal of Business Research — discovered that people feel more psychological ownership over dogs than they do with their cats. What's more, the resulting psychological ownership didn't arise because of self-investment, but instead it came from a sense of control. People feel that dogs are more controllable than cats, and therefore, they feel more psychological ownership over them. As a result, people tend to prefer dogs.
Measuring psychological ownership
Dr. Kirk uncovered this mechanism over the course of three studies. In the first, she administered a survey designed to measure how much psychological ownership people felt toward their pet based on how much control they felt they had and how much self-investment they had made into their pet. The surveys also asked what amount of money a person would be willing to spend on their pet for, say, a life-saving surgery or a personalized food bowl. The results showed that dog owners would pay more for their pet and that this tendency was linked to their sense of psychological ownership and control.
The second study worked much like the first, except this time, half of the respondents were told, "Now, for the rest of the survey, imagine that your pet had originally lived with someone else. Imagine that the pet's behavior as you know it is entirely the result of any training that someone else did before you got the pet."
The idea here is that this imaginative activity would reduce the respondents' sense of psychological ownership. In this case, the findings from the first study were not replicated. The respondents who imagined that another owner had trained their pet felt less psychological ownership and were correspondingly less willing to pay for their pets.
The third study examined emotional attachment, an aspect of pet ownership that hadn't yet been considered in this study. While psychological ownership is associated with attachment, the two are not mutually exclusive. You could feel very attached to a pet you do not see as your own, and you could not care at all about a pet that you do see as your own. That being said, a sense of control (and therefore a sense of psychological ownership) does encourage emotional attachment.
The results confirmed those of the previous two studies, suggesting that dog owners were more willing to spend money on their pet and additionally showed that their emotional attachment to their dog was due to the sense of control they felt. What's more, when a dog's behavior was described as being more typical to that of a cat, this effect diminished, and the opposite was true as well: when a cat was described as behaving more dog-like, pet owners believed they had more control over the pet and were willing to spend money on their pet.Taken together, the results paint a pretty clear picture. Because psychological ownership can arise from feeling a sense of control, and because it produces an emotional attachment, people tend to prefer dogs over cats. Both animals make fantastic companions, but as author Mary Bly put it, "Dogs come when they're called; cats take a message and get back to you."
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Whether or not women think beards are sexy has to do with "moral disgust"
- A new study found that women perceive men with facial hair to be more attractive as well as physically and socially dominant.
- Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength, social assertiveness, and formidability.
- Women who display higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, are more likely to prefer hairy faces.
Beards and perceptions of masculinity<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg0MC9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY0NzkxMjM3N30.cH-GqNwP5GVqvstgJWAhBPn1B_lYpVEAI0I7iax7EQw/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C1900%2C0%2C849&height=700" id="caae6" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="cb0a355a4e8e1899789bc45f3f7aef56" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Photo Credit: Wikimedia<p>The study used 919 American (mostly white) women ages 18-70 who rated 30 pictures of men they were shown with various stages of facial hair growth. The photographs depicted men with faces that had been digitally altered to look more feminine or more masculine, with a beard and without a beard. The women rated the men according to perceived attractiveness for long-term and short-term relationships. The study found that the more facial hair the men had, the higher the men were rated on their attractiveness, particularly for their suitability for a long-term relationship.</p><p>Part of this might be attributed to facial masculinity — i.e. protruding brow ridge, wide cheekbones, thick jawline, and deeply set narrow eyes — which conveys information to a woman about a man's underlying health and formidability. Women tend to associate more masculine faces with physical strength and social assertiveness. It can also indicate a man with a superior immune response. The researchers suggested that their findings favoring bearded men could be due to the fact that facial hair enhances the masculine facial features on a man's face, like creating the illusion of a thicker jaw line. This could communicate direct benefits to women like resources and protection that would enhance survival among mothers and their infants. In other words, while a beard doesn't mean superior genetics in and of itself, it might be a primitive, ornamental way of saying, "Hey girl, I'm a testosterone-fueled lean, mean, pathogen fighting machine." <br></p><p>It could also be that a beard becomes its own destiny. The researchers in this study cite prior research that found that by growing a beard, men felt more masculine and had higher levels of serum testosterone, which was linked to a higher level of social dominance. They also tended to subscribe to more old-school beliefs about gender roles in their relationships with women as compared to men with clean-shaven faces.<span></span><br></p>
What does disgust have to do with beard preference?<p>Obviously, not all women dig beards. The researchers were particularly interested in what traits make a women prefer bearded men over clean-shaven faces. They looked into several factors including a woman's disgust levels on various concepts, her desire to become pregnant, and her exposure to facial hair in her personal life. </p><p>According to the study, women who were not into facial hair were turned-off by potential parasites or other critters they imagined could be in the hair or skin. Women ranking high on this "ectoparasite disgust" scale might have viewed beards as a sign of poor grooming habits. However, women who ranked higher in levels of "pathogen" did find the bearded men to be desirable, possibly because they perceived beards as a signal of good health and immune function. An intriguing discovery in the study was links to morality. Women who displayed higher levels of "moral disgust," or feelings of repugnance toward taboo behaviors, were more likely to prefer hairy faces. The authors opined that this could reflect a link between beardedness, politically conservative outlooks, and traditional views regarding performances of masculinity in heterosexual relationships.</p>
Additional findings<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMjU5OTg1My9vcmlnaW4uZ2lmIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyNDI1NjUyOX0.P9B8WbmJR0q4nfzYZKbuNSA-2SAigVWJgrQE-_Gxlds/img.gif?width=980" id="49143" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="2ed3b1d6f20fc170bf2974646e565e8d" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />Giphy<p>The correlations that existed between married and single women's rating on the attractiveness of beards were not particularly clear, although the researchers noted that single and married women who wanted children tended to find beards more attractive than the women who didn't want children. They also found that women with bearded husbands found beards to be more attractive, which might indicate that social exposure to beards influences how desirable they are perceived of as being. Or it could be that men with wives who like beards grow beards.</p><p>It's important to note that culture plays a huge role in how attractive women perceive certain male characteristics as being. This study looked at a small, culturally specific group of American women, so no big, universal claims should be made about masculinity, facial hair, and male desirability to women. However, research like this is important in highlighting how human grooming decisions are driven by much more than fashion trends. Sociobiological, economic, and ecological factors all play a part in the way we choose to present ourselves.</p>
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