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Human encroachment is obliterating chimpanzee culture
We are destroying who they are.
- A study finds that human impact is decimating the cultures of chimpanzee communities in the wild.
- Unique localized behaviors are being reduced by 88 percent.
- Socialized learning in chimps has finally been established, just in time to be destroyed.
People who enjoy travel have seen this trend becoming more and more pronounced even in human populations: There's an increasing homogeneity among our cultures, a loss of local identity as we increasingly eat the same foods, watch the same movies, and covet the same gizmos. A similar thing is occurring to chimpanzees, but it's even more fundamental. The culprit, though, is the same: Us.
At least we (sort of) intend to be doing it to ourselves — our primate cousins are losing their tapestry of cultures through no fault of their own.
Image source: Ari Wid / Shutterstock
It took some time for field studies of African chimpanzees to mature to the point that a pattern became clear, but by 1999, and a cumulative 151 years of observation, researchers — including Jane Goodall — published compelling evidence that chimpanzee communities develop their own local cultures.
The paper reported: "We find that 39 different behavior patterns, including tool usage, grooming and courtship behaviors, are customary or habitual in some communities but are absent in others where ecological explanations have been discounted."
The idea was not immediately accepted, but by now, a substantial amount of evidence exists of cultures across a range of species. Humpback whales in the Gulf of Maine have taken up "lobtail feeding." A hot trend spreading through the capuchin world is poking each others' eyes. Some orangutans say goodnight by blowing a raspberry. Chimp culture is no longer in dispute.
The irony, of course, is that it's now disappearing thanks to human encroachment. As Ammie Kalan, of the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology and co-author of a new study examining this trend, tells The Atlantic, "It's amazing to think that just 60 years ago, we knew next to nothing of the behavior of our sister species in the wild. But now, just as we are truly getting to know our primate cousins, the actions of humans are closing the window on all we have discovered."
Local chimpanzee behaviors
Image source: Kalan, et al/CherylRamalho / Shutterstock
Chimpanzee behavior diversity has been "documented in a variety of contexts," says the study, "including communication, thermoregulation and extractive foraging. Chimpanzees are also proficient tool-users, using sticks, leaves and stones to access honey, insects, meat, nuts and algae."
Because the observed behaviors are unique to local population groups, they can't be attributed to instinctive behavior, and it's believed that, once introduced or invented, "Many of these behaviors are inferred to be socially learned and therefore cultural," according to the study's authors. (They don't completely rule out the possibility that genetic and environmental influences play some part. Still, the presence of these activities occurs "irrespective of resource or tool abundance," and new behaviors are continually discovered by researchers when observing a new chimpanzee group for the first time. (There's been ample controlled experimentation that confirms chimps' ability to learn new things.)
The study's researchers looked at 31 chimpanzee behaviors that appear in 144 different chimp communities. They observed 46 communities specifically for this study and incorporated existing data from an additional 106 groups, an exceptionally large data set overall.
What the paper finds
The data reveals that in chimpanzee communities experiencing significant human impact, the likelihood of local behaviors appearing drops by a stunning 88 percent. The conclusion was inescapable, even though the researchers employed an extremely forgiving standard: If a behavior was observed even once, they recorded it as present — this means our impact might actually be even more extreme than the study reports.
The authors also questioned whether there could possibly be a mistake in the manner in which the data was being analyzed. Unfortunately, that wasn't the case. "However we divided up the data, we got the same very obvious pattern," says Kalan, confirming their worst fears for the "disturbance hypothesis" the study was investigating.
The disturbance hypothesis
The disturbance hypothesis considers that even when chimp populations survive complete decimation, the damage inflicted by human exploitation of their habitat can still be profound "due to resource depletion or a breakdown in opportunities for social learning." With habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation — also, poaching — communities shrink and are dispersed over long distances, and this reduces "population size, gregariousness and long-distance dispersal, weakening behavioral transmission."
The study notes that the world population of the great apes is declining 2.5-6 percent a year. On top of that, "Our results suggest that chimpanzee populations are losing their characteristic sets of behavioral traits, and that a number of not yet discovered behaviors may be lost without having ever been described."
The authors suggest that as we look to do a better job at preserving remaining habitat in the future, we add in a new metric, "culturally significant units." They conclude "a more integrative approach to conservation is needed," a standard that "considers behavioral diversity in addition to population size and trends for wildlife management."
So much for rest in peace.
- Australian scientists found that bodies kept moving for 17 months after being pronounced dead.
- Researchers used photography capture technology in 30-minute intervals every day to capture the movement.
- This study could help better identify time of death.
We're learning more new things about death everyday. Much has been said and theorized about the great divide between life and the Great Beyond. While everyone and every culture has their own philosophies and unique ideas on the subject, we're beginning to learn a lot of new scientific facts about the deceased corporeal form.
An Australian scientist has found that human bodies move for more than a year after being pronounced dead. These findings could have implications for fields as diverse as pathology to criminology.
Dead bodies keep moving
Researcher Alyson Wilson studied and photographed the movements of corpses over a 17 month timeframe. She recently told Agence France Presse about the shocking details of her discovery.
Reportedly, she and her team focused a camera for 17 months at the Australian Facility for Taphonomic Experimental Research (AFTER), taking images of a corpse every 30 minutes during the day. For the entire 17 month duration, the corpse continually moved.
"What we found was that the arms were significantly moving, so that arms that started off down beside the body ended up out to the side of the body," Wilson said.
The researchers mostly expected some kind of movement during the very early stages of decomposition, but Wilson further explained that their continual movement completely surprised the team:
"We think the movements relate to the process of decomposition, as the body mummifies and the ligaments dry out."
During one of the studies, arms that had been next to the body eventually ended up akimbo on their side.
The team's subject was one of the bodies stored at the "body farm," which sits on the outskirts of Sydney. (Wilson took a flight every month to check in on the cadaver.)Her findings were recently published in the journal, Forensic Science International: Synergy.
Implications of the study
The researchers believe that understanding these after death movements and decomposition rate could help better estimate the time of death. Police for example could benefit from this as they'd be able to give a timeframe to missing persons and link that up with an unidentified corpse. According to the team:
"Understanding decomposition rates for a human donor in the Australian environment is important for police, forensic anthropologists, and pathologists for the estimation of PMI to assist with the identification of unknown victims, as well as the investigation of criminal activity."
While scientists haven't found any evidence of necromancy. . . the discovery remains a curious new understanding about what happens with the body after we die.
Metal-like materials have been discovered in a very strange place.
- Bristle worms are odd-looking, spiky, segmented worms with super-strong jaws.
- Researchers have discovered that the jaws contain metal.
- It appears that biological processes could one day be used to manufacture metals.
The bristle worm, also known as polychaetes, has been around for an estimated 500 million years. Scientists believe that the super-resilient species has survived five mass extinctions, and there are some 10,000 species of them.
Be glad if you haven't encountered a bristle worm. Getting stung by one is an extremely itchy affair, as people who own saltwater aquariums can tell you after they've accidentally touched a bristle worm that hitchhiked into a tank aboard a live rock.
Bristle worms are typically one to six inches long when found in a tank, but capable of growing up to 24 inches long. All polychaetes have a segmented body, with each segment possessing a pair of legs, or parapodia, with tiny bristles. ("Polychaeate" is Greek for "much hair.") The parapodia and its bristles can shoot outward to snag prey, which is then transferred to a bristle worm's eversible mouth.
The jaws of one bristle worm — Platynereis dumerilii — are super-tough, virtually unbreakable. It turns out, according to a new study from researchers at the Technical University of Vienna, this strength is due to metal atoms.
Metals, not minerals
Fireworm, a type of bristle wormCredit: prilfish / Flickr
This is pretty unusual. The study's senior author Christian Hellmich explains: "The materials that vertebrates are made of are well researched. Bones, for example, are very hierarchically structured: There are organic and mineral parts, tiny structures are combined to form larger structures, which in turn form even larger structures."
The bristle worm jaw, by contrast, replaces the minerals from which other creatures' bones are built with atoms of magnesium and zinc arranged in a super-strong structure. It's this structure that is key. "On its own," he says, "the fact that there are metal atoms in the bristle worm jaw does not explain its excellent material properties."
Just deformable enough
Credit: by-studio / Adobe Stock
What makes conventional metal so strong is not just its atoms but the interactions between the atoms and the ways in which they slide against each other. The sliding allows for a small amount of elastoplastic deformation when pressure is applied, endowing metals with just enough malleability not to break, crack, or shatter.
Co-author Florian Raible of Max Perutz Labs surmises, "The construction principle that has made bristle worm jaws so successful apparently originated about 500 million years ago."
Raible explains, "The metal ions are incorporated directly into the protein chains and then ensure that different protein chains are held together." This leads to the creation of three-dimensional shapes the bristle worm can pack together into a structure that's just malleable enough to withstand a significant amount of force.
"It is precisely this combination," says the study's lead author Luis Zelaya-Lainez, "of high strength and deformability that is normally characteristic of metals.
So the bristle worm jaw is both metal-like and yet not. As Zelaya-Lainez puts it, "Here we are dealing with a completely different material, but interestingly, the metal atoms still provide strength and deformability there, just like in a piece of metal."
Observing the creation of a metal-like material from biological processes is a bit of a surprise and may suggest new approaches to materials development. "Biology could serve as inspiration here," says Hellmich, "for completely new kinds of materials. Perhaps it is even possible to produce high-performance materials in a biological way — much more efficiently and environmentally friendly than we manage today."
Dealing with rudeness can nudge you toward cognitive errors.
- Anchoring is a common bias that makes people fixate on one piece of data.
- A study showed that those who experienced rudeness were more likely to anchor themselves to bad data.
- In some simulations with medical students, this effect led to higher mortality rates.
Cognitive biases are funny little things. Everyone has them, nobody likes to admit it, and they can range from minor to severe depending on the situation. Biases can be influenced by factors as subtle as our mood or various personality traits.
A new study soon to be published in the Journal of Applied Psychology suggests that experiencing rudeness can be added to the list. More disturbingly, the study's findings suggest that it is a strong enough effect to impact how medical professionals diagnose patients.
Life hack: don't be rude to your doctor
The team of researchers behind the project tested to see if participants could be influenced by the common anchoring bias, defined by the researchers as "the tendency to rely too heavily or fixate on one piece of information when making judgments and decisions." Most people have experienced it. One of its more common forms involves being given a particular value, say in negotiations on price, which then becomes the center of reasoning even when reason would suggest that number should be ignored.
It can also pop up in medicine. As co-author Dr. Trevor Foulk explains, "If you go into the doctor and say 'I think I'm having a heart attack,' that can become an anchor and the doctor may get fixated on that diagnosis, even if you're just having indigestion. If doctors don't move off anchors enough, they'll start treating the wrong thing."
Lots of things can make somebody more or less likely to anchor themselves to an idea. The authors of the study, who have several papers on the effects of rudeness, decided to see if that could also cause people to stumble into cognitive errors. Past research suggested that exposure to rudeness can limit people's perspective — perhaps anchoring them.
In the first version of the study, medical students were given a hypothetical patient to treat and access to information on their condition alongside an (incorrect) suggestion on what the condition was. This served as the anchor. In some versions of the tests, the students overheard two doctors arguing rudely before diagnosing the patient. Later variations switched the diagnosis test for business negotiations or workplace tasks while maintaining the exposure to rudeness.
Across all iterations of the test, those exposed to rudeness were more likely to anchor themselves to the initial, incorrect suggestion despite the availability of evidence against it. This was less significant for study participants who scored higher on a test of how wide of a perspective they tended to have. The disposition of these participants, who answered in the affirmative to questions like, "Before criticizing somebody, I try to imagine how I would feel if I were in his/her place," was able to effectively negate the narrowing effects of rudeness.
What this means for you and your healthcare
The effects of anchoring when a medical diagnosis is on the line can be substantial. Dr. Foulk explains that, in some simulations, exposure to rudeness can raise the mortality rate as doctors fixate on the wrong problems.
The authors of the study suggest that managers take a keener interest in ensuring civility in workplaces and giving employees the tools they need to avoid judgment errors after dealing with rudeness. These steps could help prevent anchoring.
Also, you might consider being nicer to people.