from the world's big
New research sheds light on a possible cause of autism: processed foods
The more we learn about the microbiome, the more the pieces are fitting together.
- A new study from the University of Central Florida makes the case for the emerging connection of autism and the human microbiome.
- High levels of Propionic Acid (PPA), used in processed foods to extend shelf life, reduces neuronal development in fetal brains.
- While more research is needed, this is another step in fully understanding the consequences of poor nutrition.
A new study from the University of Central Florida, published in Scientific Reports on June 19, makes the case for the emerging connection of autism and the human microbiome. High levels of Propionic Acid (PPA), which is used in processed foods to extend shelf life and inhibit the growth of mold, appears to reduce neuronal development in fetal brains.
Turning to diet to better understand autism is not new. This new study implicates the mother's diet in the onset of autism in the developing fetus. Such a finding, if proven true, could have important consequences for prenatal care moving forward.
As the team comprised of Latifa S. Abdelli, Aseela Samsam, and Saleh A. Naser writes, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by neuro-inflammation and gastrointestinal symptoms. The spectrum includes varying levels of impaired social communication, as well as repetitive behaviors that impede a child's learning progress and ability to relate to others.
The number of children diagnosed with ASD has been ticking up by the year, though as Silberman writes, the spectrum is not new. Still, something is changing in societies causing this surge. In 2000, the CDC observed one out of every 150 children exhibiting such behaviors; by 2018, that number climbed to one of out every 59.
Could Autism Be Caused by Gut Microbes? | Dr. Emeran Mayer
The research team notes that thousands of genes are associated with ASD. While there is no singular likely culprit — they believe it is an interplay between genetic and environmental forces — they focused on maternal immune system abnormalities. Naser, who specializes in gastroenterology research, homed in on PPA as he had previously observed high levels of this carboxylic acid in stool samples of children with autism.
Excessive PPA reduces the number of neurons in the brain while simultaneously overproducing glial cells, resulting in inflammation, a marker of autism. Increased amounts of PPA damage neuronal pathways that allow the brain to communicate with the body. This toxic cocktail matches the symptoms of autism: repetitive behaviors, mobility issues, trouble communicating with others.
PPA naturally occurs in the human microbiome. Increased amounts of the acid, consumed by mothers by way of processed foods, appears to have a negative effect on their children. Increased PPA crosses into the fetus, potentially stunting neuronal development, which could aid in triggering the cascading effects that lead to the spectrum.
The acid was first discovered in 1844 by Austrian chemist, Johann Gottlieb, who noticed it in degraded sugar products. Isolated, it gives off the scent of unpleasant body odor. Manufactured, however, it is used to stop molding in animal feed, as well as human food products, including grains, baked goods, and cheese. It is approved for usage in the EU, USA, Australia, and New Zealand.
Autistic child attends the World Autism Awareness Day 2019 celebrations on April 2, 2019 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Photo credit: Mohd Samsul Mohd Said / Getty Images
Previous research has linked too much PPA with everything from nose and throat irritation to birth defects and cancer (in rats). While it is generally considered low in toxicity if swallowed, this study from UCF suggests that its effects on the maternal microbiome is far greater than previously imagined. It is, according to the researchers, only a first step, but an important one:
"This research is only the first step towards better understanding of Autism Spectrum Disorder. But we have confidence we are on the right track to finally uncovering autism etiology."
There is no benefit without cost. The low health cost of vaccines, for example — some injuries compared to untold millions of lives saved — seems a worthwhile tradeoff.
The high cost of processed foods does not seem to be worth the tradeoff, however. Convenience food is a market creation, not an evolution in good nutrition. Bread should not last for weeks on a shelf. Animals should not be fattened with low-nutrition foodstuffs, especially if the chemistry involved in producing it is ultimately harming our species.
These are the real costs of our agricultural system, which is having a direct, negative impact on our microbiomes. The research might not provide the answers that we're predisposed to believing, but science is not about popularity of responses. PPA might not be the cause of autism, and this research requires follow-up studies, but still, it's pointing to one potentially important marker.
Join The Daily Show comedian Jordan Klepper and elite improviser Bob Kulhan live at 1 pm ET on Tuesday, July 14!
The team caught a glimpse of a process that takes 18,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.
- In Italy, a team of scientists is using a highly sophisticated detector to hunt for dark matter.
- The team observed an ultra-rare particle interaction that reveals the half-life of a xenon-124 atom to be 18 sextillion years.
- The half-life of a process is how long it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei present in a sample to decay.
Gender and sexual minority populations are experiencing rising anxiety and depression rates during the pandemic.
- Anxiety and depression rates are spiking in the LGBTQ+ community, and especially in individuals who hadn't struggled with those issues in the past.
- Overall, depression increased by an average PHQ-9 score of 1.21 and anxiety increased by an average GAD-7 score of 3.11.
- The researchers recommended that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.
Study findings<p>For the study, <a href="https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11606-020-05970-4" target="_blank">published in the Journal of General Internal Medicine</a><em>, </em>Flentje and her team evaluated survey responses from nearly 2,300 individuals who identified as being in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) community. Most of the participants were white, while nearly 19 percent identified as a racial or ethnic minority. Multiple genders were represented with cisgender women (27.2 percent) and men (24.6 percent) making up a majority of the participants. Sixty-three percent had been assigned female at birth. For the most part, participants identified their sexual orientations as queer (40.3 percent), gay (36.5 percent), and bisexual (30.3 percent).</p><p>The JGIM study participants were recruited from the 18,000-participant <a href="https://pridestudy.org/" target="_blank">PRIDE Study</a> (Population Research in Identity and Disparities for Equality), which is the first large-scale, long-term national study focusing on American adults who identify as LGBTQ+. It conducts annual questionnaires to understand factors related to health and disease in this population. </p><p>Participants filled out an annual questionnaire (starting in June 2019) and a COVID-19 impact survey this past spring. Flentje noted that on an individual level, some people may not have experienced a big change in anxiety or depression levels, but for others there was. Overall, depression increased by a <a href="https://patient.info/doctor/patient-health-questionnaire-phq-9" target="_blank">PHQ-9 score</a> of 1.21, putting it at 8.31 on average. Anxiety went up by a <a href="https://www.mdcalc.com/gad-7-general-anxiety-disorder-7" target="_blank">GAD-7</a> score of 3.11 to an average of 8.89. Interestingly, the average PHQ-9 scores for those who screened positive for depression at the first 2019 survey decreased by 1.08. Those who screened negative for depression saw their PHQ-9 scores increase by 2.17 on average. As for anxiety, researchers detected no GAD-7 change among the study participants who screened positive for anxiety in the first survey, but did see an overall increase of 3.93 among those who had initially been evaluated as negative for the disorder. </p>
Risks among gender and sexual minorities<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="fc3fd1ae68b77bbbf58a6995638d6d65"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/EnUqDjCqg0A?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>The LGBTQ+ community is a vulnerable population to mental health concerns because of their fear of stigmatization and previous discriminatory experiences.</p> <p>Previous research by the Human Rights Campaign has found "that LGBTQ Americans are more likely than the <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/general+population/" target="_blank">general population</a> to live in poverty and lack access to adequate medical care, paid <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/medical+leave/" target="_blank">medical leave</a>, and basic necessities during the pandemic," said researcher Tari Hanneman, director of the health and aging program at the campaign.</p> <p>"Therefore, it is not surprising to see this increase in anxiety and depression among this population," Hanneman said in the release. "This study highlights the need for <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/health+care+professionals/" target="_blank">health care professionals</a> to support, affirm and provide <a href="https://medicalxpress.com/tags/critical+care/" target="_blank">critical care</a> for the LGBTQ community to manage and maintain their mental health, as well as their physical health, during this pandemic."</p>
What should health care providers do?<p>The authors of the study recommend that health care providers check in with LGBTQ+ patients about stress and screen for mood and anxiety disorders in members of that community—even among those with no prior history of anxiety or depression.</p><p>As cases of COVID-19 continue to mount, the sustained social distancing, potential isolation, economic precariousness, and personal illness, grief, and loss are bound to have increased and varied impacts on mental health. Effective treatments may include individual therapy and medications as well as more large-scale coronavirus support programs like peer-led groups and mindfulness practices. </p><p>"It will be important to find out what happens over time and to identify who is most at risk, so we can be sure to roll out public health interventions to support the mental health of our communities in the best and most effective ways," said Flentje.</p>
What we know about black holes is both fascinating and scary.
- When it comes to black holes, science simultaneously knows so much and so little, which is why they are so fascinating. Focusing on what we do know, this group of astronomers, educators, and physicists share some of the most incredible facts about the powerful and mysterious objects.
- A black hole is so massive that light (and anything else it swallows) can't escape, says Bill Nye. You can't see a black hole, theoretical physicists Michio Kaku and Christophe Galfard explain, because it is too dark. What you can see, however, is the distortion of light around it caused by its extreme gravity.
- Explaining one unsettling concept from astrophysics called spaghettification, astronomer Michelle Thaller says that "If you got close to a black hole there would be tides over your body that small that would rip you apart into basically a strand of spaghetti that would fall down the black hole."