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Paris, destroyed: A map of buildings lost to history
Notre Dame was almost torched in 1871, when Communards set Paris' major buildings ablaze.
- Following the blaze that ripped through Notre Dame, it feels like Paris had lost a major link to its past.
- But the cathedral is lucky to have survived this far: It was almost torched by revolutionaries in 1871.
- As the world's first communist revolt was crushed, other Parisian landmarks were set ablaze – many of which were lost forever.
The burning of Notre Dame on April 15th felt like a singular disaster. But Paris has lost countless other monuments before. This map charts one of the darkest episodes in the city's history.
Paris in ruins
Twenty-two historical sites destroyed during the Commune.
Image: Bibliothèque nationale de France
During the Commune in 1871, dozens of historical buildings were set ablaze. Some were restored to their previous glory, others were replaced by buildings of a radically different design, and some have gone forever.
The Paris Commune was a brief but bloody insurrection by the Parisian proletariat. It would later exert a huge influence on communist thinkers like Marx and revolutionaries like Lenin.
Dining on rats
Right, the docks or customs at La Villette: "Burned and destroyed on May 27th. Losses at both stores are estimated at 29 million francs." Image: Bibliothèque nationale de France
Left, the Vendôme Column: "A memorial to our ancient glories, this column in 1810 had replaced the ruins of the pedestal of the statue Louis XIV. It was destroyed on May 15th, 1871."
The context for the uprising was the Franco-Prussian War, which by late 1870 was going horribly wrong for France: Napoleon III had capitulated to the Prussians, causing the collapse of the Second Empire. The fledgling Third Republic struggled to keep up the fight.
The Prussians advanced to Paris and besieged it for four months. The French government had abandoned the capital, fleeing first to Tours, then further south to Bordeaux. During the freezing winter of 1870-'71, famished Parisians ate the animals in the zoo, and then resorted to dining on rats.
Raising the red flag
Right, City Hall: "The most important building, from an artistic point of view. The first stone was laid in 1532. It was only completed in the reign of Henry IV. Enlarged in 1841, under Louis-Philippe. Completely destroyed in 1871." Image: Bibliothèque nationale de France
Left, Rue de Rivoli, 'Le Bon Diable': "Fabric warehouse frequented by the working classes. Completely destroyed as well as several adjacent houses."
Paris' main defense was the National Guard, drawn largely from the politically radicalized working classes. Calls for the establishment of a "socialist republic" in the Commune of Paris grew louder and louder.
After France's capitulation in January 1871, the Commune established a Central Committee that refused to accept the French government's authority. Revolutionary troops seized key government buildings and raised the red flag over the Hôtel de Ville.
La semaine sanglante
Right, the Legion of Honour: "This palace dates from 1786. Its large living room was decorated by Bocquet, Louis XVI's favorite painter. The archives have been destroyed. There is little damage on the outside, but little remains on the inside." Image: Bibliothèque nationale de France.
Left, Ministry of Finance: "Built in 1811 on the site of the gardens of Les Feuillants Convent, this building is now completely collapsed. It was one of the first to be burned, on 23 May 1871."
For a few months, the Paris Commune ruled itself, decreeing a multitude of socialist, secularist, and anti-imperialist measures, until the army re-established the government's authority during the Semaine Sanglante (the Bloody Week), which began on 21 May 1871.
One of the Commune's decisions was to pull down the Vendôme Column as a "monument of barbarism" and a "symbol of brute force and false pride." The original proposition was by Gustave Courbet, the painter.
Melted down into coins
Right, Court of Audit: "The interior is completely burned. The restoration of this building is estimated at three million francs. Built in 1807, burned on May 23, 1871." Image: Bibliothèque nationale de France
Left, Tuileries Palace: "This is one of the greatest losses for Paris. The main building is no more than a heap of ruins. Burned on May 23, 1871."
The column was destroyed on the 16th of May. After a failed first attempt, it was toppled at 5:30 pm. The column shattered into three pieces, the pedestal was draped in red flags, and the bronze was melted down into coins.
It took France's "government in exile" some time to gather enough troops to reconquer the capital. A final, bloody assault by the French Army ended the Commune.
Right, Rue du Bac: "The oldest aristocratic families live in this neighbourhood, that's why it suffered so much. The houses numbered 6, 7, 9, 11 and 13 have been completely burned." Image: Bibliothèque nationale de France
Left, the Royal Palace: "The Residence of the Prince Napoleon, this building is totally in ruins. Anne of Austria lived here in 1645, then Cardinal de Richelieu, and then the regent Philippe of Orleans."
The Bloody Week began on the 21st of May, when the army entered the city walls unchallenged. In the absence of organized resistance, it then took back the city district by district.
In response to the army's advance into the city on the 22nd of May, up to 900 barricades were hastily erected by the Communards. That afternoon, the first heavy fighting started, with artillery duels between both sides. The National Guard started executing army prisoners, and the other side reciprocated.
Thick blankets of smoke
Right, St Martin's Gate: "Having already burned twice, it was completely destroyed on the Boulevard side. Many adjoining houses burned, also in the Rue de Bondi." Image: Bibliothèque nationale de France
Left, the Palace of Justice: "The old part of the palace suffered little, but the new part, a masterpiece of architecture, is in ruins. The Holy Chapel was spared but the beautiful paintings by Lhemann and Robert Fleury were consumed by the flames."
On the 23rd of May, the army reconquered the Butte Montmartre, where the uprising had begun. Prisoners were executed en masse. In revenge, National Guardsmen started burning public buildings.
In the early hours of the 24th of May, the Hôtel de Ville, until then the Commune's headquarters, was evacuated and set ablaze. That day, uncoordinated battles resumed under thick blankets of smoke.
More buildings set afire
Right, the Bank of Deposits and Consignments: "Located at the centre of the fires, the interior of this building has been completely destroyed, without anyone able to come to its aid. All that's left are the four walls." Image: Bibliothèque nationale de France.
Left, conciergerie: "Side overlooking the Quai des Orfèvres. It's from this building that the orders for so many massacres were given. In many previous reigns it was also in this courtyard that so many innocents were executed."
More buildings were set afire: the Palais de Justice (destroyed save for the Sainte-Chapelle), the Prefecture de Police, the theaters of Châtelet and Porte Saint-Martin, and the Church of St. Eustache.
Fires that started at Notre Dame were extinguished without causing too much damage. By the end of the 25th, the Commune controlled just one-third of the city.
Last stand at Père Lachaise
Left, the Arsenal: "Most of this arms and ammunitions dump went up in flames. Some parts of the building were saved, however. Burned on May 24, 1871."
Right, Place de la Bastile & Rue de la Roquette: "The entrance of the Faubour St Antoine – the capital's most crowded neighbourhood. The location of frightful events during each revolution. In 1871, there were crimes and massacres from the Rue de la Roquette all the way to Père Lachaise."
Image: Bibliothèque nationale de France
On the 26th, the Army retook the Place de la Bastille and the Buttes Chaumont a day later.
One of the last redoubts of the Commune was the cemetery of Père Lachaise. The last 150 guardsmen surrendered and were shot at what is now known as the Communards' Wall.
'Revolutionary government of the future'
Left, the Lyric Theatre: "One of the most beautiful theatres of our age, where so many artists gave their best. Little damage on the outside, but inside everything has to be restored. Cost of the restoration is estimated at 2 million francs. Burned on May 23, 1871."
Right, the Attic of Abundance: "This most useful building housed several million francs' worth in goods, grain, flour, oil, bacon, etc. Built in 1807 and destroyed in 1871, it was 350 meters in length."
Image: Bibliothèque nationale de France
The last resistance was mopped up on the 28th. The army counted 877 casualties, and the number of Communards killed was much higher, but the exact number remains uncertain – estimates vary from 6,000 to 20,000 killed.
For Marx, the Commune was the "prototype for a revolutionary government of the future." Fellow communist theorist Friedrich Engels was the first to call the Commune a "dictatorship of the proletariat," a phrase later taken up by Lenin and applied to the Soviet Union.
Lenin, dancing in the snow
Left, Rue de Lille: "This neighborhood suffered the most. The houses fallen prey to the flames are (...)."
Right, Auteuil Bridge and Station: "Major battle flashpoint, and point of entry for the Army troops into Paris. The bridge had already been badly damaged by the enemy, and finally succumbed under the heavy artillery by the French Army on May 21, 1871."
Image: Bibliothèque nationale de France
The Paris Commune inspired similar workers' uprisings; first in other French cities, and also later, as far afield as Moscow (1905) and Shanghai (1927 and 1967). Lenin danced in the snow in Moscow when his government was two months old – this meant it had already outlived the Paris Commune. A red banner from the Commune brought to Moscow by French communists in 1924 still adorns his mausoleum.
At Père Lachaise, a plaque commemorates the spot where 147 Communards were executed. After the restoration of the bourgeois regime, Gustave Courbet was ordered to pay for the restoration of the column. He left for Switzerland, never to return. He died without having paid a sou.
Propaganda value reversed
Left, Rue Royale: "Once beautiful and rich, this area is now an eyesore, from house number 13 to Faubourg St Honoré. At number 3, everything is burned. The damage is estimated at 700,000 francs. Burned on May 22nd."
Right, the Red Cross: "Six stores on the corner of the Rues de Grenelle, Sèvres and Cherche midi are totally in ruins. Burned on May 23, despite the resistance put up by several neighbourhood residents."
Image: Bibliothèque nationale de France
For decades, the ruins of the Commune remained visible in the city centre of Paris. In fact, they became popular tourist attractions, just like the ruins of ancient Rome or Greece.
Curiously, the propaganda value of the destruction soon reversed polarity. The Communards had torched grand old buildings as a last, angry act of resistance against the resurgent bourgeois régime.
The excesses of radicalism
The charred remains of the Hôtel de Ville (City Hall).
Image: Alphonse Liébert/public domain
Rather than a rebuke of imperialism and capitalism, the ruins came to be seen as a warning against the excesses of radicalism.
These 22 vignettes of buildings destroyed during the Bloody Week frame a large map of Paris that looks as if the Commune had never happened: the Tuileries Palace is still attached to the Louvre, and the Grenier d'Abondance stands on the river's edge, stocked with food that will soon end up on Parisian tables.
Road map for 19th-century Paris
19th-century Paris, enclosed in its city walls.
Image: Bibliothèque nationale de France
This map is not just a critique of the destruction wrought by the Communards, it's also a road map for mid-19th-century Paris. And despite the fact that a number of buildings have been lost to history, it's still a fairly accurate guide to the city's architectural heritage today.
Strange Maps #976
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Higher education faces challenges that are unlike any other industry. What path will ASU, and universities like ASU, take in a post-COVID world?
- Everywhere you turn, the idea that coronavirus has brought on a "new normal" is present and true. But for higher education, COVID-19 exposes a long list of pernicious old problems more than it presents new problems.
- It was widely known, yet ignored, that digital instruction must be embraced. When combined with traditional, in-person teaching, it can enhance student learning outcomes at scale.
- COVID-19 has forced institutions to understand that far too many higher education outcomes are determined by a student's family income, and in the context of COVID-19 this means that lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color will be disproportionately afflicted.
What conditions of the new normal were already appreciated widely?<p>First, we understand that higher education is unique among industries. Some industries are governed by markets. Others are run by governments. Most operate under the influence of both markets and governments. And then there's higher education. Higher education as an "industry" involves public, private, and for-profit universities operating at small, medium, large, and now massive scales. Some higher education industry actors are intense specialists; others are adept generalists. Some are fantastically wealthy; others are tragically poor. Some are embedded in large cities; others are carefully situated near farms and frontiers.</p> <p>These differences demonstrate just some of the complexities that shape higher education. Still, we understand that change in the industry is underway, and we must be active in directing it. Yet because of higher education's unique (and sometimes vexing) operational and structural conditions, many of the lessons from change management and the science of industrial transformation are only applicable in limited or highly modified ways. For evidence of this, one can look at various perspectives, including those that we have offered, on such topics as <a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/digital-learning/blogs/rethinking-higher-education/lessons-disruption" target="_blank">disruption</a>, <a href="https://www.nytimes.com/2020/02/20/education/learning/education-technology.html" target="_blank">technology management</a>, and so-called "<a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/sites/default/server_files/media/Excerpt_IHESpecialReport_Growing-Role-of-Mergers-in-Higher-Ed.pdf" target="_blank">mergers and acquisitions</a>" in higher education. In each of these spaces, the "market forces" and "market rules" for higher education are different than they are in business, or even in government. This has always been the case and it is made more obvious by COVID-19.</p> <p>Second, with so much excitement about innovation in higher education, we sometimes lose sight of the fact that students are—and should remain—the core cause for innovation. Higher education's capacity to absorb new ideas is strong. But the ideas that endure are those designed to benefit students, and therefore society. This is important to remember because not all innovations are designed with students in mind. The recent history of innovation in higher education includes several cautionary tales of what can happen when institutional interests—or worse, <a href="https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2016/02/09/apollos-new-owners-seek-fresh-start-beleaguered-company" target="_blank">shareholder</a> interests—are placed above student well-being.</p>
Photo: Getty Images<p>Third, it is abundantly apparent that universities must leverage technology to increase educational quality and access. The rapid shift to delivering an education that complies with social distancing guidelines speaks volumes about the adaptability of higher education institutions, but this transition has also posed unique difficulties for colleges and universities that had been slow to adopt digital education. The last decade has shown that online education, implemented effectively, can meet or even surpass the quality of in-person <a href="https://link-springer-com.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/article/10.1007/s10639-019-10027-z" target="_blank">instruction</a>.</p><p>Digital instruction, broadly defined, leverages online capabilities and integrates adaptive learning methodologies, predictive analytics, and innovations in instructional design to enable increased student engagement, personalized learning experiences, and improved learning outcomes. The ability of these technologies to transcend geographic barriers and to shrink the marginal cost of educating additional students makes them essential for delivering education at scale.</p><p>As a bonus, and it is no small thing given that they are the core cause for innovation, students embrace and enjoy digital instruction. It is their preference to learn in a format that leverages technology. This should not be a surprise; it is now how we live in all facets of life.</p><p>Still, we have only barely begun to conceive of the impact digital education will have. For example, emerging virtual and augmented reality technologies that facilitate interactive, hands-on learning will transform the way that learners acquire and apply new knowledge. Technology-enabled learning cannot replace the traditional college experience or ensure the survival of any specific college, but it can enhance student learning outcomes at scale. This has always been the case, and it is made more obvious by COVID-19.</p>
What conditions of the new normal were emerging suspicions?<p>Our collective thinking about the role of institutional or university-to-university collaboration and networking has benefitted from a new clarity in light of COVID-19. We now recognize more than ever that colleges and universities must work together to ensure that the American higher education system is resilient and sufficiently robust to meet the needs of students and their families.</p> <p>In recent weeks, various commentators have suggested that higher education will face a wave of institutional <a href="https://www.businessinsider.com/scott-galloway-predicts-colleges-will-close-due-to-pandemic-2020-5" target="_blank">closures</a> and consolidations and that large institutions with significant online instruction capacity will become dominant.</p> <p>While ASU is the largest public university in the United States by enrollment and among the most well-equipped in online education, we strongly oppose "let them fail" mindsets. The strength of American higher education relies on its institutional diversity, and on the ability of colleges and universities to meet the needs of their local communities and educate local students. The needs of learners are highly individualized, demanding a wide range of options to accommodate the aspirations and learning styles of every kind of student. Education will become less relevant and meaningful to students, and less responsive to local needs, if institutions of higher learning are allowed to fail. </p> <p>Preventing this outcome demands that colleges and universities work together to establish greater capacity for remote, distributed education. This will help institutions with fewer resources adapt to our new normal and continue to fulfill their mission of serving students, their families, and their communities. Many had suspected that collaboration and networking were preferable over letting vulnerable colleges fail. COVID-19's new normal seems to be confirming this.</p>
President Barack Obama delivers the commencement address during the Arizona State University graduation ceremony at Sun Devil Stadium May 13, 2009 in Tempe, Arizona. Over 65,000 people attended the graduation.
Photo by Joshua Lott/Getty Images<p>A second condition of the new normal that many had suspected to be true in recent years is the limited role that any one university or type of university can play as an exemplar to universities more broadly. For decades, the evolution of higher education has been shaped by the widespread imitation of a small number of elite universities. Most public research universities could benefit from replicating Berkeley or Michigan. Most small private colleges did well by replicating Williams or Swarthmore. And all universities paid close attention to Harvard, Princeton, MIT, Stanford, and Yale. It is not an exaggeration to say that the logic of replication has guided the evolution of higher education for centuries, both in the US and abroad.</p><p>Only recently have we been able to move beyond replication to new strategies of change, and COVID-19 has confirmed the legitimacy of doing so. For example, cases such as <a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/education/2020/03/10/harvard-moves-classes-online-advises-students-stay-home-after-spring-break-response-covid-19/" target="_blank">Harvard's</a> eviction of students over the course of less than one week or <a href="https://www.nhregister.com/news/coronavirus/article/Mayor-New-Haven-asks-for-coronavirus-help-Yale-15162606.php" target="_blank">Yale's apparent reluctance</a> to work with the city of New Haven, highlight that even higher education's legacy gold standards have limits and weaknesses. We are hopeful that the new normal will include a more active and earnest recognition that we need many types of universities. We think the new normal invites us to rethink the very nature of "gold standards" for higher education.</p>
A graduate student protests MIT's rejection of some evacuation exemption requests.
Photo: Maddie Meyer/Getty Images<p>Finally, and perhaps most importantly, we had started to suspect and now understand that America's colleges and universities are among the many institutions of democracy and civil society that are, by their very design, incapable of being sufficiently responsive to the full spectrum of modern challenges and opportunities they face. Far too many higher education outcomes are determined by a student's family income, and in the context of COVID-19 this means that lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color will be disproportionately afflicted. And without new designs, we can expect postsecondary success for these same students to be as elusive in the new normal, as it was in the <a href="http://pellinstitute.org/indicators/reports_2019.shtml" target="_blank">old normal</a>. This is not just because some universities fail to sufficiently recognize and engage the promise of diversity, this is because few universities have been designed from the outset to effectively serve the unique needs of lower-income students, first-generation students and students of color.</p>
Where can the new normal take us?<p>As colleges and universities face the difficult realities of adapting to COVID-19, they also face an opportunity to rethink their operations and designs in order to respond to social needs with greater agility, adopt technology that enables education to be delivered at scale, and collaborate with each other in order to maintain the dynamism and resilience of the American higher education system.</p> <p>COVID-19 raises questions about the relevance, the quality, and the accessibility of higher education—and these are the same challenges higher education has been grappling with for years. </p> <p>ASU has been able to rapidly adapt to the present circumstances because we have spent nearly two decades not just anticipating but <em>driving</em> innovation in higher education. We have adopted a <a href="https://www.asu.edu/about/charter-mission-and-values" target="_blank">charter</a> that formalizes our definition of success in terms of "who we include and how they succeed" rather than "<a href="https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/2019/10/17/forget-varsity-blues-madness-lets-talk-about-students-who-cant-afford-college/" target="_blank">who we exclude</a>." We adopted an entrepreneurial <a href="https://president.asu.edu/read/higher-logic" target="_blank">operating model</a> that moves at the speed of technological and social change. We have launched initiatives such as <a href="https://www.instride.com/how-it-works/" target="_blank">InStride</a>, a platform for delivering continuing education to learners already in the workforce. We developed our own robust technological capabilities in ASU <a href="https://edplus.asu.edu/" target="_blank">EdPlus</a>, a hub for research and development in digital learning that, even before the current crisis, allowed us to serve more than 45,000 fully online students. We have also created partnerships with other forward-thinking institutions in order to mutually strengthen our capabilities for educational accessibility and quality; this includes our role in co-founding the <a href="https://theuia.org/" target="_blank">University Innovation Alliance</a>, a consortium of 11 public research universities that share data and resources to serve students at scale. </p> <p>For ASU, and universities like ASU, the "new normal" of a post-COVID world looks surprisingly like the world we already knew was necessary. Our record breaking summer 2020 <a href="https://asunow.asu.edu/20200519-sun-devil-life-summer-enrollment-sets-asu-record" target="_blank">enrollment</a> speaks to this. What COVID demonstrates is that we were already headed in the right direction and necessitates that we continue forward with new intensity and, we hope, with more partners. In fact, rather than "new normal" we might just say, it's "go time." </p>
Can an orgasm a day really keep the doctor away?
- Achieving orgasm through masturbation provides a rush of feel-good hormones (such as dopamine, serotonin and oxytocin) and can re-balance our levels of cortisol (a stress-inducing hormone). This helps our immune system function at a higher level.
- The surge in "feel-good" hormones also promotes a more relaxed and calm state of being, making it easier to achieve restful sleep, which is a critical part in maintaining a high-functioning immune system.
- Just as bad habits can slow your immune system, positive habits (such as a healthy sleep schedule and active sex life) can help boost your immune system which can prevent you from becoming sick.
How masturbation affects your brain...<p>Orgasms are a very common human phenomenon. The physical and mental health benefits have been researched frequently as a result, and yet, there is still so much to be learned about how our bodies and brains react to the chemicals and hormones released during and after experiencing this type of sexual release.</p><p>"The amount of speculation versus actual data on both the function and value of orgasm is remarkable" explains Julia Heiman, director of the <a href="https://kinseyinstitute.org/" target="_blank">Kinsey Institute for Research in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction</a>.</p><p>Masturbation causes a rush of <a href="https://www.webmd.com/mental-health/what-is-dopamine" target="_blank">dopamine</a>, which is a chemical that is associated with our ability to feel pleasure. Along with the rush of dopamine that is released during an orgasm, there is also a release of a hormone called <a href="https://www.livescience.com/42198-what-is-oxytocin.html" target="_blank">oxytocin</a>, which is commonly referred to as the "love hormone."<br></p><p>This concoction of chemicals does more than just boost our mood, it also can play a key role in decreasing stress and promoting relaxation. Oxytocin decreases <a href="https://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/what-is-cortisol" target="_blank">cortisol</a>, which is a stress hormone that is usually present (in high volumes) during times of anxiety, fear, panic, or distress. </p><p>According to BDSM and fetish researcher <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/therapists/dr-gloria-brame-colbert-ga/278388" target="_blank">Dr. Gloria Brame</a>, an orgasm is the biggest non-drug induced blast of dopamine that we can experience. </p><p>By boosting the oxytocin and dopamine levels and subsequently decreasing our cortisol levels, the brain is placed in a more relaxed, euphoric, and calm state. </p>
Masturbation boosts your immune system and raises your white blood cell count.<p>How do those effects on the brain from reaching orgasm translate to boosting our immune system and making our body healthier?</p><p>The increase of oxytocin and dopamine that causes a decrease in cortisol levels can help boost our immune system because cortisol (well-known for being a stress-inducing hormone) actually helps maintain your immune system if released in small doses. </p><p>According to <a href="https://www.health24.com/Sex/Great-sex/incredible-health-benefits-to-masturbating-20181030-2" target="_blank">Dr. Jennifer Landa</a>, a hormone-therapy specialist, masturbation can produce the right kind of environment for a strengthened immune system to thrive. </p><p><a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15316239" target="_blank">A study</a> conducted by the Department of Medical Psychology at the University Clinic of Essen (in Germany) showed similar results. A group of 11 volunteers were asked to participate in a study that would look at the effects of orgasm through masturbation on the white blood cell count and immune system.</p><p>During this experiment, the white blood cell count of each participant was analyzed through measures that were taken 5 minutes before and 45 minutes after reaching a self-induced orgasm. </p><p>The results confirmed that sexual arousal and orgasm increased the number of white blood cells, particularly the natural killer cells that help fight off infections. </p><p>The findings confirm that our immune system is positively affected by sexual arousal and self-induced orgasm and promote even more research into the positive impacts of sexual arousal and orgasm. </p>
Masturbation can ease and prevent pain, which allows you to achieve the restful sleep that helps your immune system stay strong and healthy.<p>The benefits of masturbation have long been debated, but the more research that is done on the topic the more we understand that there are many positive reactions that happen in our bodies and brains when we orgasm.</p><p>Orgasms can help prevent or mitigate pain, which boosts the immune system, preventing cold and flu symptoms. </p><p>According to neurologist and headache specialist Stefan Evers, about one in three patients experience relief from migraine attacks by experiencing sexual activity or orgasm. Evers and his team <a href="https://www.livescience.com/27642-sex-relieves-migraine-pain.html" target="_blank">conducted an experiment</a> with 800 migraine patients and 200 patients who suffered from cluster-headaches to see how their experiences with sexual activity impacted their pain levels. </p><p>The study showed that 60% of migraine sufferers experienced pain relief after participating in sexual activity that resulted in orgasm. Of the cluster-headache sufferers, about 50% said their headaches actually worsened after sexual arousal and orgasm. </p><p>Evers suggested in his findings that the people who did not experience pain relief from migraines of headaches during their sexual activity did not release as large amounts of endorphins as those who did experience pain relief. </p><p>According to <a href="https://www.sharecare.com/health/chronic-pain/chronic-pain-affect-immune-system" target="_blank">rheumatologist Dr. Harris McIlwain</a>, people who suffer from chronic pain have immune systems that are simply not functioning at full capacity - therefore, alleviating pain (through orgasm, as an example) can help boost the immune system. </p><p>Orgasms can also promote relaxation and make it easier to fall asleep. Serotonin, oxytocin, and norepinephrine are all hormones that are released during sexual arousal and orgasm, and all three are known for counteracting stress hormones and promoting relaxation, which makes it much easier for you to fall asleep.</p><p>There are <a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1233384" target="_blank">several studies</a> showing that serotonin and norepinephrine help our body cycle through REM and deep non-REM sleeping cycles. During these sleep cycles, the immune system releases proteins called <a href="https://www.sleepfoundation.org/articles/how-sleep-affects-your-immunity" target="_blank"><span id="selection-marker-1" class="redactor-selection-marker"></span>cytokines<span id="selection-marker-2" class="redactor-selection-marker"></span></a>, which target infection and inflammation. This is a critical part of our immune response. Cytokines are both produced and released throughout our bodies while we sleep, which proves the importance of a good sleep schedule to a healthy immune system.</p>
Masturbation promotes a high-functioning immune system; a healthy immune system prevents cold and flu.<p>The immune system is a balanced network of cells and organs that work together to defend you against infections and diseases by stopped threats like bacteria and viruses from entering your system. While there are many things we need to do to keep our immune systems functioning at optimal levels, masturbation (or other means of achieving orgasm) has proven to have positive effects on the immune system as a whole.</p><p>Just as bad habits (such as an inconsistent sleep schedule or harmful chemicals in your body) can slow your immune system, positive habits (such as a healthy sleep schedule and active sex life) can help boost your immune system. </p>
Sallie Krawcheck and Bob Kulhan will be talking money, jobs, and how the pandemic will disproportionally affect women's finances.
Scientists uncovered the secrets of what drove some of the world's last remaining woolly mammoths to extinction.
Every summer, children on the Alaskan island of St Paul cool down in Lake Hill, a crater lake in an extinct volcano – unaware of the mysteries that lie beneath.