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556 - The World on your Shoulders: Map Tattoos
I’m still not sure what Pinterest is for , but scrolling a recommended collection of maps on the site, I couldn’t help but notice that the number of cartographic tattoos was remarkably high. This blog has featured map tattoos on two earlier occasions , but the cornucopia of examples - and the emergence of a few curious patterns - warrants a second, closer look.
The World on Your Shoulder - the most popular cartographic tattoo according to a non-scientific study conducted by this blog (This image taken here).
Tattoos have made a remarkable comeback over the last century. Very little material evidence remains, but a few inadvertent glimpses into the distant past point to tattoos being very widespread in prehistoric times. The skin of the iron-age corpses retrieved intact from permafrosted Siberian graves  was rife with depictions of wild animals, dancing the hunt. Pritani, the oldest known name for inhabitants of Britain (and the origin of its name), means ‘the Painted People’, after their prominent tattoos.
Looks similar to the one above, but note the variation in centricity: the previous one has the Pacific in the middle, this one is centred on Europe/Africa. (Original context here).
Whether it was disdain of the civilised for the primitive, or a proscription for the pious from the profane  is a matter for tattoo historians, but fact is that inked skin pretty much seems to have disappeared from Europe from the advent of Christianity until the exploration of Polynesia in the 18th century. European sailors then enthusiastically adopted the local tradition of tatau - and by the end of the next century, over 90% of British sailors were tattooed.
Can you tell what's missing on this map? A hint: it's mentioned by name in this post. (Map found here).
Tattoos remained the preserve of the naval, criminal, and other marginal elements of society  until the latter half of the 20th century, when a cultural revolution upturned many social norms and conventions. In 1936, only 6% of Americans had a tattoo; in 2003, that percentage had risen to 16% - a net increase of approximately 10 to 40 million inked Americans. A 2008 study indicated that 36% of Americans in the 18 to 25 age bracket had a tattoo - rising to 40% for the 26- to 40-year-olds.
The world goes round: a nice variation on the world map, now divided in two hemispheres (first seen here).
Today, tattoos have become respectable, or at least acceptable. Celebrities lead the way: Angelina Jolie and David Beckham hit the headlines whenever they add a new one to their already extensive collection. As to subject matter, a few themes dominate (and are subject to peaks and troughs of popularity): the traditional tattoo (anchors, skulls, roses, hearts, swallows), the tribal symbol (Celtic, Native American, Maori, etc.), the calligraphed quote or meaningful maxim, the black-and-gray tonal, the colourful ‘New Skool’ tattoo.
Flexing global muscle: a tattoo of the world map on the upper arm (map first seen here).
Soon the non-tattooed will be in the minority. But in the new mainstream, new subcultures emerge. Cartographic tattoos, while still relatively small in number, demonstrate a perhaps unwitting unity of characteristics.
He's got the whole wide world in his hands (taken here).
First of all, the world map seems the single most popular cartographic tattoo. Which is a refreshing rebuke to a world (sic) increasingly dominated by nationalism and chauvinism. As for the projection: Mercator certainly seems to have gone out of fashion. An easy way of verifying whether a world map is in the Mercator projection, is by comparing Greenland to Africa. If the Icy Island is about the same size as the Dark Continent, then you’re looking at Mercator. In actual fact, Africa is 14 times larger than Greenland .
The Meridian of Ankle: World Mapping on Foot (taken from here).
The world maps are inked mainly on the back. Is this symbolic? Do the tattoo-ees think they are carrying the weight of the world on their shoulders, like Atlas of classical mythology ? Some other tattoo locations are certainly no less symbolic: the world at your feet, the world in your hands. Other map tattoos are more specific, referring to a country or even a city of origin. The link here is more direct: This is where I'm from, and don't you (or I) forget it.
A map of Euskadi, the Basque homeland, on either side of the Spanish-French border. The colours are of the Basque flag, and the bull and swastika-like symbol are ancient local symbols (Provenance here).
No world map - China will do. Chairman Mao is looking on contendedly. (From here).
A Map of New Zealand in what appears to be Maori tribal symbols. (Taken here).
A tattoo/map of Brittany, France's nose. Note the parchmenty look of the tat. (culled here).
Some go so far as to reflect the transit system of their home towns - which can be practical as well as beautiful.
The Chicago metropolitan transit system on a foot...
... and on an arm. (Pictures taken here and here).
A small subset of tattoos are what you could call atypical and meta-maps. There’s Angelina Jolie’s list of geographical coordinates, one for every place on earth that each of her children was born. Or that fantastic picture of two friendly right hands, both mimicking the shape of Alaska, and marked with an anchor where Anchorage should be - an elegant reference back to modern tattooing’s nautical origins.
Anchors for Anchorage, and a hand-based imitation of the rest of the state of Alaska. For more on hand cartography, see entries #313, #512, #545. This image taken from here.
A cryptic map of hangout places shared with a friend (presumably s/he has the same tattoo. Otherwise it's a bit creepy). Picture from here.
A beautiful cross-section of geological stratification, reminiscent of the work of Harold Fisk (see #208). From here.
If you yourself have cartographic ink to display - or if this post has inspired you to get your own map tat  - please share your artwork by responding to this article with a link to your map.
 It’s described as a ‘pinboard-styled social photo sharing website’. So how is it not Flickr? One online marketing expert explains: ‘Flickr links are “NOFOLLOW”, Pinterest’s are not’, while another states: ‘Invariably, those that don’t understand the difference between a content publishing-based social network and a bookmarking-based network will compare the new Flickr to Pinterest.’ I’m too old for this. Somebody please give me a VCR to programme.
 A tattoo of the city grid of the German city of Hannover etched across an entire back (#126); and one of the urban layout of Portland, Maine on an upper arm (#392). The original context of the latter map/tattoo shows the same person sporting a state map of Maine on the upper thigh. Talk about pining for the Pine Street State!
 These frozen tombs, on the Ukok plateau in the Altai mountains, date from around the 5th century BC, and are linked to a people called the Pazyryk. Many of the tattoos have been re-appropriated by contemporary aficionados. The only Western European example of a freeze-dried ancient corpse is Ötzi the Iceman, who died over 5000 years ago in the Alps. His body is covered by over 50 geometric tattoos.
 “Ye shall not make any cuttings in your flesh for the dead, nor print any marks upon you: I [am] the LORD.” (Leviticus, 19:28).
 Not entirely. Tattoos were also worn by a select few of the select few. Frederick XI of Denmark (b. 1899, king 1947, d. 1972) sported a multitude of inks, for example.
 Everybody is always underestimating (or at least not caring about) the size of Africa. It’s huge, proper huge: #35.
 There is some confusion on the origin of Atlas as a term for a collection of maps gathered (somewhat) systematically into a book. Retroactive etymology ascribes the name to the Greek god who carried the world on his back; in fact, Mercator (who made and named the first atlas) referred to the equally mythical, but lesser-known Mauretanian king Atlas, whose knowledge of astronomy was legendary.
 Don’t be surprised to keep getting the Caucasus when you google ‘map tat’: the Tats are one of the myriad of peoples in that region of the world.
While legalization has benefits, a new study suggests it may have one big drawback.
- A new study finds that rates of marijuana use and addiction have gone up in states that have recently legalized the drug.
- The problem was most severe for those over age of 26, with cases of addiction rising by a third.
- The findings complicate the debate around legalization.
Cannabis Use Disorder, is that when you get so high you can’t figure out how to smoke anymore?
Cannabis use disorder, also known as CUD or cannabis/marijuana addiction, is a psychological disorder described in DSM 5 as "the continued use of cannabis despite clinically significant impairment." This includes people being unable to cut down on their usage despite wanting to, those who often use it despite finding it severely impairs their ability to function, or those who are putting themselves in danger to secure access to the drug.
While an understanding that marijuana can be addictive has existed for some time, and the image of the pothead who smokes so much they can hardly function is prevalent in our society, the effects of legalization on addiction rates have somehow gone understudied until now. Importantly, previous studies had failed to consider usage rates amongst populations over the age of 25.
In the new study, published in JAMA Psychiatry, focused on self-reported data on monthly drug use in four states where marijuana is now legal, Colorado, Washington, Alaska, and Oregon, from both before and after the drug was legalized in each state and compared it to others which have not yet legalized.
The data gave insights into the drug use habits of the respondents and specifically gave information about if they had smoked at all in the last month, the frequency of their drug use, and if they had ever had issues with how much they were using drugs.The researchers ultimately considered the responses of 505,796 individuals.
The increase in cannabis usage they found was considerable. The number of respondents over the age of 26 who claimed to have used the drug in the last month went up by 23% compared with their counterparts in states that have yet to legalize. Abuse of the drug by this group rose by 37%.
Teen usage rose by 25%, and addiction rates rose as well. This increase was small, though, and the authors have suggested it may be due to an unknown factor. The rate of usage or abuse for respondents between the ages of 18 and 25 did not increase at all.
After breaking the results down by demographics, the primary finding held; adults over the age of 26 are using marijuana more often when it is legalized, and they are starting to use it too much.
The grain of salt
As in any study where findings are self-reported, the exact numbers you see here should be taken with a grain of salt. They could be slightly higher or lower. As this study relies on people self-reporting their usage of a drug that is still illegal in many places, it is very possible that the apparent spike in addiction rates is caused by more accurate reporting, as people who live in an area where pot is still illegal may be less likely to report smoking it every day.
And it should be repeated a thousand times over that correlation and causation are not the same thing. There could be some unknown factor causing these increases in each case.
Despite these qualifications, the study is still useful in giving us a general sense of what may happen in states that have yet to legalize.
What does this mean for society and drug users?
While claims of "reefer madness" are greatly exaggerated, marijuana has several well established and thoroughly studied side effects. While occasional use isn't terribly harmful, addiction can be. Lead author Magdalena Cerdá of New York University explains in the study that heavy marijuana use is associated with "psychological and physical health concerns, lower educational attainment, decline in social class, unemployment, and motor vehicle crashes."
A substantial increase in the number of people who are addicted to the stuff will incur costs to society down the line.
Of course, a 37% increase in problematic usage means that the percentage of adults smoking too much went from .9% to 1.23% of the population responding to the survey. This makes it far less prevalent than issues with alcohol, which affected around 6% of all Americans in 2018.
Recently, Big Think's Philip Perry wrote a piece about how legalization could improve the health of millions by allowing the government to regulate the purity of commercially sold marijuana. This remains true. However, it must be weighed against the findings of this study, which suggests that at least some of these health gains will be wiped out by increased addiction rates.
What does this mean for legalization efforts?
The legalization steamroller will undoubtedly keep rolling along. While health concerns are one factor in the debate over marijuana, it is only one of many. In Illinois, where I live, weed will become legal on January 1st of 2020. The legalization campaign and legislation were more concerned with issues of social justice, the failures of prohibition, and finding a new source of tax revenue (since we're half broke) than with matters of potential addiction.
As Vox reports, the authors of the study aren't suggesting that legalization shouldn't take place; that is another, broader debate. They merely wish to present the fact that legalization has a particular side effect that we should be aware of.
While this study is unlikely to change anybody's stance on if weed should be legalized or not, it does show us a critical element to be considered when discussing drug policy. No drug is perfectly safe, and we have reason to believe that legalizing marijuana will mean that more people will have a hard time with it. Let's hope that legalization proponents keep that in mind as they rack up their victories.
For some reason, the bodies of deceased monks stay "fresh" for a long time.
It's definitely happening, and it's definitely weird. After the apparent death of some monks, their bodies remain in a meditating position without decaying for an extraordinary length of time, often as long as two or three weeks.
Tibetan Buddhists, who view death as a process rather than an event, might assert that the spirit has not yet finished with the physical body. For them, thukdam begins with a "clear light" meditation that allows the mind to gradually unspool, eventually dissipating into a state of universal consciousness no longer attached to the body. Only at that time is the body free to die.
Whether you believe this or not, it is a fascinating phenomenon: the fact remains that their bodies don't decompose like other bodies. (There have been a handful of other unexplained instances of delayed decomposition elsewhere in the world.)
The scientific inquiry into just what is going on with thukdam has attracted the attention and support of the Dalai Lama, the highest monk in Tibetan Buddhism. He has reportedly been looking for scientists to solve the riddle for about 20 years. He is a supporter of science, writing, "Buddhism and science are not conflicting perspectives on the world, but rather differing approaches to the same end: seeking the truth."
The most serious study of the phenomenon so far is being undertaken by The Thukdam Project of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Center for Healthy Minds. Neuroscientist Richard Davidson is one of the founders of the center and has published hundreds of articles about mindfulness.
Davidson first encountered thukdam after his Tibetan monk friend Geshe Lhundub Sopa died, officially on August 28, 2014. Davidson last saw him five days later: "There was absolutely no change. It was really quite remarkable."
The science so far
Credit: GrafiStart / Adobe Stock
The Thukdam Project published its first annual report this winter. It discussed a recent study in which electroencephalograms failed to detect any brain activity in 13 monks who had practiced thukdam and had been dead for at least 26 hours. Davidson was senior author of the study.
While some might be inclined to say, well, that's that, Davidson sees the research as just a first step on a longer road. Philosopher Evan Thompson, who is not involved in The Thukdam Project, tells Tricycle, "If the thinking was that thukdam is something we can measure in the brain, this study suggests that's not the right place to look."
In any event, the question remains: why are these apparently deceased monks so slow to begin decomposition? While environmental factors can slow or speed up the process a bit, usually decomposition begins about four minutes after death and becomes quite obvious over the course of the next day or so.
As the Dalai Lama said:
"What science finds to be nonexistent we should all accept as nonexistent, but what science merely does not find is a completely different matter. An example is consciousness itself. Although sentient beings, including humans, have experienced consciousness for centuries, we still do not know what consciousness actually is: its complete nature and how it functions."
As thukdam researchers continue to seek a signal of post-mortem consciousness of some sort, it's fair to ask what — and where — consciousness is in the first place. It is a question with which Big Think readers are familiar. We write about new theories all the time: consciousness happens on a quantum level; consciousness is everywhere.
So far, though, says Tibetan medical doctor Tawni Tidwell, also a Thukdam Project member, searches beyond the brain for signs of consciousness have gone nowhere. She is encouraged, however, that a number of Tibetan monks have come to the U.S. for medical knowledge that they can take home. When they arrive back in Tibet, she says, "It's not the Westerners who are doing the measuring and poking and prodding. It's the monastics who trained at Emory."
When Olympic athletes perform dazzling feats of athletic prowess, they are using the same principles of physics that gave birth to stars and planets.
- Much of the beauty of gymnastics comes from the physics principle called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Conservation of angular momentum tells us that when a spinning object changes how its matter is distributed, it changes its rate of spin.
- Conservation of angular momentum links the formation of planets in star-forming clouds to the beauty of a gymnast's spinning dismount from the uneven bars.
It is that time again when we watch in awe as Olympic athletes perform dazzling feats of athletic prowess. But as we stare in rapt attention at the speed, grace, and strength they exhibit, it is also a good time to pay attention to how they embody, literally, fundamental principles that shape the entire universe. Yes, I'm talking about physics. On our screens, these athletes are giving us lessons in the principles that giants like Isaac Newton struggled mightily to articulate.
Naturally, there are many Olympic events from which we could learn some basic principles of physics. Swimming shows us hydrodynamic drag. Boxing teaches us about force and impulse. (Ouch!) But today, we will focus on gymnastics and the cosmic importance of the conservation of angular momentum.
The conservation of angular momentum
Much of the beauty of gymnastics comes from the spins and flips athletes perform as they launch themselves into the air from the vault or uneven bars. These are all examples of rotations — and so much of the structure and history of the universe, from planets to galaxies, comes down to the physics of rotating objects. And so much of the physics of rotating objects comes down to the conservation of angular momentum.
Let's start with the conservation of regular or "linear" momentum. Momentum is the product of mass and velocity. Way back in the age of Galileo and Newton, physicists came to understand that in the interactions between bodies, the sum of their momentums had to be conserved (which really means "does not change"). This is a familiar idea to anyone who has played billiards: when a moving pool ball strikes a stationary one, the first ball stops while the second scoots away. The total momentum of the system (the mass times velocity of both balls taken together) is conserved, leaving the originally moving ball unmoving and the originally stationary ball carrying all the system's momentum.
Credit: Sergey Nivens and Victoria VIAR PRO via Adobe Stock
Rotating objects also obey a conservation law, but now it is not just the mass of an object that matters. The distribution of mass — that is, where the mass is located relative to the center of the rotation — is also a factor. Conservation of angular momentum tells us that if a spinning object is not subject to any forces, then any changes in how its matter is distributed must lead to a change in its rate of spin. Comparing the conservation of angular momentum to the conservation of linear momentum, the "distribution of mass" is analogous to mass, and the "rate of spin" is analogous to velocity.
There are many places in cosmic physics where this conservation of angular momentum is key. My favorite example is the formation of stars. Every star begins its life as a giant cloud of slowly spinning interstellar gas. The clouds are usually supported against their own gravitational weight by gas pressure, but sometimes a small nudge from, say, a passing supernova blast wave will force the cloud to begin gravitational collapse. As the cloud begins to shrink, the conservation of angular momentum forces the spin rate of material in the cloud to speed up. As material is falling inward, it also rotates around the cloud's center at ever higher rates. Eventually, some of that gas is going so fast that a balance between the gravity of the newly forming star and what is called centrifugal force is achieved. That stuff then stops moving inward and goes into orbit around the young star, forming a disk, some material of which eventually becomes planets. So, the conservation of angular momentum is, literally, why we have planets in the universe!
Gymnastics, a cosmic sport
How does this appear in gymnastics? When athletes hurl themselves into the air to perform a flip, the only force acting on them is gravity. But since gravity only affects their "center of mass," it cannot apply forces in a way that changes the athlete's spin. But the gymnasts can do that for themselves by using the conservation of angular momentum.
By changing how their mass is arranged, gymnasts can change how fast they spin. You can see this in the dismount phase of the uneven bar competitions. When a gymnast comes off the bars and performs a flip by tucking their legs inward, they can quickly increase their rotation rate in midair. The sudden dramatic increase in the speed of their flip is what makes us gasp in astonishment. It is both scary and a beautiful testament to the athletes' ability to intuitively control the physics of their bodies. And it is also the exact same physics that controls the birth of planets.
"As above so below," goes the old saying. You should keep that in mind as you watch the glory that is the Olympics. That is because it is not just athletes that have this intuitive understanding of physics. We all have it, and we use it every day, from walking down the stairs to swinging a hammer. So, it is no exaggeration to claim that the first place we came to understand the deepest principles of physics was not in contemplating the heavens but moving through the world in our own earthbound flesh.