Study: Psychopaths can’t tell when people fake distress
A new study shows that psychopaths have a hard time telling when someone's genuinely distressed, and that they don't seem to care much either way.
Psychopaths have little trouble recognizing when people are happy or angry based on their facial expressions. But they seem to have a much harder time recognizing the emotion of distress, according to new research from the Australian National University.
"For most people, if we see someone who is genuinely upset, you feel bad for them and it motivates you to help them," said lead study author Amy Dawel of the ANU Research School of Psychology. "People who are very high on the psychopathy spectrum don't show this response."
The study, published in Personality Disorders: Theory, Research, and Treatment, involved 140 participants who examined photographs of faces expressing various emotions. Some emotions were faked, some genuine.
The results showed that people high in psychopathic traits—like callousness, shallow affect and poor empathy—were less able to tell when someone was faking the emotion of distress.
"We found people with high levels of psychopathic traits don't feel any worse for someone who is genuinely upset than someone who is faking it," Dawel said. "They also seem to have problems telling if the upset is real or fake. As a result, they are not nearly as willing to help someone who is expressing genuine distress as most people are."
However, this handicap among people with psychopathic traits only seems affect their recognition of distress, including the emotions sadness and fear.
"For other emotions such as anger, disgust, and happy, high psychopathy individuals had no problems telling if someone was faking it. The results were very specific to expressions of distress."
Dawel hopes her research can help in the development of treatments for psychopathy.
"There seems to be a genetic contribution to these traits, we see the start of them quite early in childhood," she said. "Understanding exactly what is going wrong with emotions in psychopathy will help us to identify these problems early and hopefully intervene in ways that promote moral development."
Over the past few decades, psychopathy has moved from being commonly thought of as binary—you have it or you don't—toward being a condition that exists on a spectrum. That's mainly thanks to a checklist of psychopathic traits, now called the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised, developed by the psychologist Robert D. Hare.
Although the checklist has been met with some criticism over the years, notably in Jon Ronson's book The Psychopath Test, it's often used in psychological studies, like the recent one, to measure psychopathy. To do so, a mental health professional rates an individual on 20 criteria using a scale of 0 to 2 points. You can see the criteria below:
- Do you exhibit glib and superficial charm?
- Do you have a grandiose (exaggeratedly high) estimation of self?
- Do you have a constant need for stimulation?
- Are you a pathological liar?
- Are you cunning and manipulative?
- Do you have lack of remorse or guilt?
- Do you have shallow affect (superficial emotional responsiveness)?
- Are you callous, and do you lack empathy?
- Do you have a parasitic lifestyle?
- Do you have poor behavioral controls?
- Are you sexually promiscuous?
- Did you display early behavior problems?
- Do you lack realistic long-term goals?
- Are you overly impulsive?
- Are you irresponsible?
- Do you fail to accept responsibility for your own actions?
- Have you had many short-term marital relationships?
- Do you have a history of juvenile delinquency?
- Have you experienced a revocation of conditional release?
- Do you display criminal versatility?
The maximum score is 40, and a score of 30 or above is typically classified as psychopathic. Hare estimates that about 1 percent of the population is psychopathic. Interestingly, most psychologists estimate that psychopathy is more prevalent among CEOs, and much more prevalent among prisoners.
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
Do you have a magnetic compass in your head?
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