from the world's big
Why Is the United States So Divided? Simple, It Was Never United at All.
The United States of America is as divided now as it has ever been. Why is this? One author suggests that it is because we have never been one united nation, but 11 differing ones. Founded for different reasons and striving towards conflicting goals, can they ever learn to get along again?
The United States of America is as divided as it has been for at least 100 years. The two major parties disagree on if certain problems even exist, and most voters vote not in support of their candidate, but in opposition to the opposing one. It can seem like the regions of the country are truly differing nations.
But why is this? Why do we disagree on such fundamental issues now?
According to author Colin Woodard, it is because Americans never did agree on fundamental issues, and North America is really comprised of 11 distinct cultural regions which battle for political and social supremacy constantly.
The differences in the regions, he argues are not only cultural and political, but also linguistic, religious, and even show up in what holidays are celebrated: with some nations celebrating Martin Luther King Jr day, and others celebrating Robert E Lee’s birthday.
Should we return America to concern for the common good? Or return to rugged individualism? Are we one nation under the one true God? Or is there strength in our diversity? Different regions suggest different answers, and view each as the "true" American values system.
The idea of the United States being a union of cultural regions is not a new one, the idea has existed in some form for decades, but Woodard’s model is the newest and perhaps most comprehensive.
His division of the continent includes the following regions: A map is available here.
Yankeedom: Consisting of New England and the upper Midwest, this region was founded by radical Calvinists determined to build a city on a hill in the new world. This region is notable for the value it places on education, its acceptance of state regulation, a Utopian mindset, and citizen activism. Formerly quite religious, it is now dedicated to a “Secular Puritanism”.
The Midlands: Stretching from Pennsylvania to the plains, this region is the most typically “American” of them all. Founded by Quakers and populated by Germans at the time of the American Revolution. This region has been moderate, unconcerned with ethnic or ideological purity. The key swing region in national politics.
New Netherland: The area in and around New York City, this region was founded by the Dutch as a money making venture. Interested more in trade then moral questions, this region finds itself more comfortable with diversity of all kinds then almost any other region. An economic powerhouse, it still tends to ally with the economic regulation minded Yankeedom.
Tidewater: Occupying the area around the Chesapeake bay and founded by the English Gentry as a semi-feudal recreation of England. This region dominated early American politics, but soon declined with its lack of space to expand. Today this region is being eaten by the D.C exurbs.
Greater Appalachia: Stretching from the Appalachian mountains to Texas, this region is filled with the descendants of Irish and Scottish immigrants. Placing a value on personal liberty, family, and a warrior ethic. This region has been suspicious of both Deep South and Yankeedom’s schemes to dominate the country.
The Left Coast: A wedge stretching from British Columbia down to Central California, this region was boxed in by the Pacific and The Far West region. Founded by Yankeedom settlers, and then populated by Greater Appalachian settlers after that; this region is a hybrid of Yankee Utopianism and Appalachian individualism. It often battles with its neighbor, The Far West, for control of the states they share.
Deep South: Stretching across Dixie, this nation is the other superpower region. Established by Slave owners from the Caribbean colonies of Great Britain, this region was intended to recreate those societies. Marked by single party rule, the domination of a single religious denomination, and the enshrinement of a racial caste system for most of its history. It stands opposed to Yankeedom, and supports regulation on personal behavior while opposing economic regulation.
New France: Consisting of New Orleans and Quebec province, this region was founded by the French fur traders and settlers. The most Postmodern region in North America, they are remarkably tolerant of alternative cultures, comfortable with state regulation in the economy, and value multiculturalism. It is this region which draws Canada to the left of the United States politically.
El Norte: The oldest nation listed, and consisting of Northern Mexico and the area around the border with the United States. Independent minded, hardworking, and a hotbed of reform and revolutionary ideals. The American portion of this region is notable for its unique culture, and the Mexican portion for its attempts at independence.
The Far West: Founded by especially tough settlers who were able to stick it out in the difficult climate and their financial backers in the eastern cities and Washington who made it possible. This region is the most individually minded of them all, reflected both in their culture of individual liberty and their politics.
First Nation: The areas of Canada that were never overrun by European settlers, these areas are still controlled by the original inhabitants and have largely retained their culture. Covering a massive territory, but it has a population that is less than 300,000
Of course, the idea isn't that everybody in each region acts like everybody else. These are generalizations. It is more so that at the national scale we can see these cultural regions, and at the local level we can still see the diversity one would expect.
So, what does this mean for our national disagreements?
Yankeedom and Deep South, Woodard argues, have dominated coalitions for the last two hundred years. The Northern coalition typically consists of Yankeedom, New Netherlands, and The Left Coast, while the Southern Coalition has typically been The Deep South, Greater Application, Tidewater occasionally The Far West. The Midlands and El Norte have been the swing regions politically. Whoever can take the swing regions, he points out, has been able to seize the federal government and enforce its will on the rest of the union.
Woodard does write in the final chapter of his book, that the union is increasingly in peril. Most Americans now live in counties that were taken by the winning candidate by more than 10% in the last election. This is in line with his predictions, as he notes that we use our mobility to move to like minded areas rather than blend our cultures. This is what leads to our current situation, as regions become less able to communicate across cultures, and the gap between left and right grows larger.
A map of the United States at the time of the Civil War, wait, this looks familiar... (credit to commons.wiki.org)
Will the union dissolve? Should it? Can it be saved?
Woodard himself suggests that the system should be changed, either to one where the balance of power is less precarious or one where control of the federal government is less of a prize to the coalitions. Strictly speaking, secession is illegal, but might it be desirable? Some of the differences in our current cultural and political climate do seem insurmountable. As Woodard himself describes, the differences between the regions on gun control and the death penalty demonstrate the difficulty in getting regions to agree on the key issues of our time.
Perhaps the U.S should call it a day? Though the United States clearly has been through worse before and come out on top in the end.
It is possible to view the United States and Canada as being comprised of various cultural regions. These regions bicker and disagree on major issues and fundamental values constantly. The rough edges between them has given American culture its greatest works and distinct tone. But can this union, or any union so conceived, long endure? Perhaps, perhaps not.
What would it be like to experience the 4th dimension?
Physicists have understood at least theoretically, that there may be higher dimensions, besides our normal three. The first clue came in 1905 when Einstein developed his theory of special relativity. Of course, by dimensions we’re talking about length, width, and height. Generally speaking, when we talk about a fourth dimension, it’s considered space-time. But here, physicists mean a spatial dimension beyond the normal three, not a parallel universe, as such dimensions are mistaken for in popular sci-fi shows.
Duke University researchers might have solved a half-century old problem.
- Duke University researchers created a hydrogel that appears to be as strong and flexible as human cartilage.
- The blend of three polymers provides enough flexibility and durability to mimic the knee.
- The next step is to test this hydrogel in sheep; human use can take at least three years.
Duke researchers have developed the first gel-based synthetic cartilage with the strength of the real thing. A quarter-sized disc of the material can withstand the weight of a 100-pound kettlebell without tearing or losing its shape.
Photo: Feichen Yang.<p>That's the word from a team in the Department of Chemistry and Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science at Duke University. Their <a href="https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1002/adfm.202003451" target="_blank">new paper</a>, published in the journal,<em> Advanced Functional Materials</em>, details this exciting evolution of this frustrating joint.<br></p><p>Researchers have sought materials strong and versatile enough to repair a knee since at least the seventies. This new hydrogel, comprised of three polymers, might be it. When two of the polymers are stretched, a third keeps the entire structure intact. When pulled 100,000 times, the cartilage held up as well as materials used in bone implants. The team also rubbed the hydrogel against natural cartilage a million times and found it to be as wear-resistant as the real thing. </p><p>The hydrogel has the appearance of Jell-O and is comprised of 60 percent water. Co-author, Feichen Yang, <a href="https://today.duke.edu/2020/06/lab-first-cartilage-mimicking-gel-strong-enough-knees" target="_blank">says</a> this network of polymers is particularly durable: "Only this combination of all three components is both flexible and stiff and therefore strong." </p><p> As with any new material, a lot of testing must be conducted. They don't foresee this hydrogel being implanted into human bodies for at least three years. The next step is to test it out in sheep. </p><p>Still, this is an exciting step forward in the rehabilitation of one of our trickiest joints. Given the potential reward, the wait is worth it. </p><p><span></span>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
An algorithm may allow doctors to assess PTSD candidates for early intervention after traumatic ER visits.
- 10-15% of people visiting emergency rooms eventually develop symptoms of long-lasting PTSD.
- Early treatment is available but there's been no way to tell who needs it.
- Using clinical data already being collected, machine learning can identify who's at risk.
The psychological scars a traumatic experience can leave behind may have a more profound effect on a person than the original traumatic experience. Long after an acute emergency is resolved, victims of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) continue to suffer its consequences.
In the U.S. some 30 million patients are annually treated in emergency departments (EDs) for a range of traumatic injuries. Add to that urgent admissions to the ED with the onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Health experts predict that some 10 percent to 15 percent of these people will develop long-lasting PTSD within a year of the initial incident. While there are interventions that can help individuals avoid PTSD, there's been no reliable way to identify those most likely to need it.
That may now have changed. A multi-disciplinary team of researchers has developed a method for predicting who is most likely to develop PTSD after a traumatic emergency-room experience. Their study is published in the journal Nature Medicine.
70 data points and machine learning
Image source: Creators Collective/Unsplash
Study lead author Katharina Schultebraucks of Columbia University's Department Vagelos College of Physicians and Surgeons says:
"For many trauma patients, the ED visit is often their sole contact with the health care system. The time immediately after a traumatic injury is a critical window for identifying people at risk for PTSD and arranging appropriate follow-up treatment. The earlier we can treat those at risk, the better the likely outcomes."
The new PTSD test uses machine learning and 70 clinical data points plus a clinical stress-level assessment to develop a PTSD score for an individual that identifies their risk of acquiring the condition.
Among the 70 data points are stress hormone levels, inflammatory signals, high blood pressure, and an anxiety-level assessment. Says Schultebraucks, "We selected measures that are routinely collected in the ED and logged in the electronic medical record, plus answers to a few short questions about the psychological stress response. The idea was to create a tool that would be universally available and would add little burden to ED personnel."
Researchers used data from adult trauma survivors in Atlanta, Georgia (377 individuals) and New York City (221 individuals) to test their system.
Of this cohort, 90 percent of those predicted to be at high risk developed long-lasting PTSD symptoms within a year of the initial traumatic event — just 5 percent of people who never developed PTSD symptoms had been erroneously identified as being at risk.
On the other side of the coin, 29 percent of individuals were 'false negatives," tagged by the algorithm as not being at risk of PTSD, but then developing symptoms.
Image source: Külli Kittus/Unsplash
Schultebraucks looks forward to more testing as the researchers continue to refine their algorithm and to instill confidence in the approach among ED clinicians: "Because previous models for predicting PTSD risk have not been validated in independent samples like our model, they haven't been adopted in clinical practice." She expects that, "Testing and validation of our model in larger samples will be necessary for the algorithm to be ready-to-use in the general population."
"Currently only 7% of level-1 trauma centers routinely screen for PTSD," notes Schultebraucks. "We hope that the algorithm will provide ED clinicians with a rapid, automatic readout that they could use for discharge planning and the prevention of PTSD." She envisions the algorithm being implemented in the future as a feature of electronic medical records.
The researchers also plan to test their algorithm at predicting PTSD in people whose traumatic experiences come in the form of health events such as heart attacks and strokes, as opposed to visits to the emergency department.