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The Big Five personality traits and what they mean to psychologists
Psychologists sort human personalities into five traits, each of which you can score high or low on.
At the topmost level, there are two types of people in the world: Those who think personality types can be categorized and those who can't.
Among those in the first group are psychologists who began developing a system for classifying personality traits based on an analysis of language way back in the 1880s. With the advent of larger data sets, in 1978 Paul Costa and Robert McRae published their Neuroticism-Extraversion-Openness Inventory (NEO-I) that grouped personalities according to three principal traits. In 1985 after further research, they added two more, and published the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO PI). The groupings constitute the five personality traits psychologists use today, known as “The Big Five." Together, they form the acronym OCEAN.
Each personality trait is characterized by six individual facets.
The assumption has long been that these inventories could be useful in statistical studies, revealing how personality correlates to an individual's behavior and degree of life satisfaction. And this has turned out to be true. Few scientists would assert that personality is the only factor that determines how one lives — situational factors are believed to be just as important — but there are some intriguing correspondences.
If you like, you can take a free online International Personality Item Pool Representation of the NEO PI-R™ (IPIP-NEO) test to find out where you fit into the Big Five inventory. The original version has 300 questions, and there's an abbreviated one with 120.
Openness to Experience
This one describes people who enjoy the arts and new experiences. The may exhibit these facets:
• Fantasy — have a vivid imagination
• Aesthetics — believe in the importance of art
• Feelings — experience emotions intensely
• Actions — prefer variety to routine
• Ideas — like complex problems
• Values — tend to vote for liberals
High scorers are creative, into discovering new things, and have a strong internal life characterized by extended musings over concepts and experiences. Low scorers are more conventional, with narrower interests, and are more down to earth.
These people are organized, and tend to keep going and going. They're methodical, down to their to-do lists. Their sub-six are:
• Competence — complete tasks successfully
• Order — like order
• Dutifulness — follow the rules
• Achievement-striving — work hard
• Self-discipline — get chores done right away
• Deliberation — avoid mistakes
Hard-working, dependable, and not afraid of some hard work? You might score highly in conscientiousness. If you go with the flow, make decisions impulsively, and in general like to wing it, odds are you're a low scorer.
This is about degree of sociability, and one's source of energy and excitement: Is it derived from other people? (This is also sometimes called “surgency," which ruins the OCEAN acronym.)
• Warmth — make friends easily
• Gregariousness — love large parties
• Assertiveness — take charge
• Activity — am always busy
• Excitement-seeking — love excitement
• Positive Emotions — radiate joy
High scorers people light up around other people. They love the spotlight and are often the life of the party. They may also be thrill-seekers. People who score low in this trait tend to be quieter, more inward, and more deliberate. Being around people is a chore for them.
Extraversion is also a strong indicator of leadership quality, like conscientiousness.
These people are all about trust, honesty, and getting along with others. They're also tolerant. Their six facets:
• Trust — trust others
• Compliance — would never cheat on taxes
• Altruism — make people feel welcome
• Straightforwardness — am easy to satisfy
• Modesty — dislike being center of attention
• Tender-mindedness — sympathize with the homeless
People who score highly for agreeableness are honesty, dependable, and generous, looking for the best in others. They're often mild-mannered and consider loyalty an important value. Low scorers have low expectations of others, and may be sneaky as a result: They're generally suspicious of other humans.
Agreeable people folks tend to be happier because they gravitate toward the positive, though they're not as likely to get ahead as some others who are dissatisfied with things as they are and think less of their peers. According to one study, agreeable people are more likely to have a looser walk, too.
We may not all be psychologists, but we pretty much know what “neurotic" means. These people have these facets to them:
• Anxiety — worry about things
• Hostility — get angry easily
• Depression — often feel blue
• Self-consciousness — am easily intimidated
• Impulsiveness — eat too much
• Vulnerability — panic easily
Well, obviously, people who score high in neuroticism aren't especially happy. They're vulnerable to frequent strong negative emotions — sadness, anger, fear — and are uncomfortable with themselves. Lower scores for this trait are calm, more stable, and not as likely to react extremely when presented with stressors.
Editor's note: This post originally identified the five personality categories as "types" which made them seem more exclusive than they are. "Types" has been changed to "traits" throughout the post.
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Construction of the $500 billion dollar tech city-state of the future is moving ahead.
- The futuristic megacity Neom is being built in Saudi Arabia.
- The city will be fully automated, leading in health, education and quality of life.
- It will feature an artificial moon, cloud seeding, robotic gladiators and flying taxis.
The Red Sea area where Neom will be built:
Saudi Arabia Plans Futuristic City, "Neom" (Full Promotional Video)<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="c646d528d230c1bf66c75422bc4ccf6f"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/N53DzL3_BHA?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Frequent shopping for single items adds to our carbon footprint.
- A new study shows e-commerce sites like Amazon leave larger greenhouse gas footprints than retail stores.
- Ordering online from retail stores has an even smaller footprint than going to the store yourself.
- Greening efforts by major e-commerce sites won't curb wasteful consumer habits. Consolidating online orders can make a difference.
A pile of recycled cardboard sits on the ground at Recology's Recycle Central on January 4, 2018 in San Francisco, California.
Photo by Justin Sullivan/Getty Images<p>A large part of the reason is speed. In a competitive market, pure players use the equation, <em>speed + convenience</em>, to drive adoption. This is especially relevant to the "last mile" GHG footprint: the distance between the distribution center and the consumer.</p><p>Interestingly, the smallest GHG footprint occurs when you order directly from a physical store—even smaller than going there yourself. Pure players, such as Amazon, are the greatest offenders. Variables like geographic location matter; the team looked at shopping in the UK, the US, China, and the Netherlands. </p><p>Sadegh Shahmohammadi, a PhD student at the Netherlands' Radboud University and corresponding author of the paper, <a href="https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/26/tech/greenhouse-gas-emissions-retail/index.html" target="_blank">says</a> the above "pattern holds true in countries where people mostly drive. It really depends on the country and consumer behavior there."</p><p>The researchers write that this year-and-a-half long study pushes back on previous research that claims online shopping to be better in terms of GHG footprints.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"They have, however, compared the GHG emissions per shopping event and did not consider the link between the retail channels and the basket size, which leads to a different conclusion than that of the current study."</p><p>Online retail is where convenience trumps environment: people tend to order one item at a time when shopping on pure player sites, whereas they stock up on multiple items when visiting a store. Consumers will sometimes order a number of separate items over the course of a week rather than making one trip to purchase everything they need. </p><p>While greening efforts by online retailers are important, until a shift in consumer attitude changes, the current carbon footprint will be a hard obstacle to overcome. Amazon is trying to have it both ways—carbon-free and convenience addicted—and the math isn't adding up. If you need to order things, do it online, but try to consolidate your purchases as much as possible.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>
Building a personal connection with students can counteract some negative side effects of remote learning.
- Not being able to engage with students in-person due to the pandemic has presented several new challenges for educators, both technical and social. Digital tools have changed the way we all think about learning, but George Couros argues that more needs to be done to make up for what has been lost during "emergency remote teaching."
- One interesting way he has seen to bridge that gap and strengthen teacher-student and student-student relationships is through an event called Identity Day. Giving students the opportunity to share something they are passionate about makes them feel more connected and gets them involved in their education.
- "My hope is that we take these skills and these abilities we're developing through this process and we actually become so much better for our kids when we get back to our face-to-face setting," Couros says. He adds that while no one can predict the future, we can all do our part to adapt to it.
Chronic irregular sleep in children was associated with psychotic experiences in adolescence, according to a recent study out of the University of Birmingham's School of Psychology.