from the world's big
Would a wealth tax in America work? Yes, argues Berkeley economist Gabriel Zucman.
According to recent papers by Zucman, and his colleague Emmanuel Saez, one should be implemented.
- French economist, Gabriel Zucman, argues that a wealth tax needs to be implemented to level the economic playing field.
- Zucman helped both Bernie Sanders and Elizabeth Warren draft their wealth tax proposals.
- Zucman was also part of the discovered American billionaires now pay a lower tax rate than the middle class.
Though the last Democratic debate did not yield any revelations, the aftermath has been a focus on America's financial state, with discussions of a wealth tax (championed by Sen. Elizabeth Warren and Sen. Bernie Sanders) and universal basic income (championed by Andrew Yang) receiving the lion's share of attention.
Cue a handful of CEOs writing op-eds claiming that a wealth tax would never work.
Yet, we all know something is amiss. Pretending that billionaire tax cuts is the best path ahead for society is farcical. Between 1982 and 2018, the amount of U.S. wealth held by the richest 400 Americans grew by roughly $3 trillion. It's data provided by University of California, Berkeley, economists Emmanuel Saez and Gabriel Zucman — both of whom also vetted Warren's and Sanders's wealth tax plans.
In a paper published in September, the two economists revealed another facet of American tax reality that has since made headlines everywhere: for the first time in history, American billionaires pay a lower tax rate than the middle class. A large part of the problem is that while the lower classes are bombarded with sales and payroll taxes, the wealthiest pay no tax on the money they hold in bank accounts and investment funds.
One of the economist behind the Warren wealth tax explains the policy
For example, Warren Buffet famously repeats that he should be taxed more. As Zucman points out, Forbes estimates Buffet to be worth $60 billion. Yet he only claims $10 million in capital gains to the IRS. Buffet might claim to want more taxation, but according to Zucman his tax rate is functionally zero.
"Raising the rate on the $10 million that was accessible to the I.R.S. made no statistical difference at all. The issue was the $59,990,000,000 that they could not touch."
As Saez and Zucman point out in a recent NY Times article, each of the richest 400 Americans hold the same wealth as 1,308,440 fellow citizens. Since 1962, the tax rate of the bottom 50 percent of American workers has risen from 22.5 percent to 24.2 percent. Meanwhile, the rate for the top .01 percent has dropped from 53.6 percent to 29.4 percent. Even more stunningly is the rate of those 400 richest: from 54.4 percent to just 23 percent.
Meanwhile, the Trump reelection campaign has raised over $300 million for the next election.
Cutting taxes is not the work of Trump alone, though he is certainly enabling the process. Obama slashed corporate taxes, as did Bush before him. As Saez and Zucman write in the Times piece, this is not the way things must be, but a concerted effort to keep wealth concentrated:
"Tax avoidance, international tax competition and the race to the bottom that rage today are not laws of nature. They are policy choices, decisions we've collectively made — perhaps not consciously or explicitly, certainly not choices that were debated transparently and democratically — but choices nonetheless. And other, better choices are possible."
U.S. Senator Bernie Sanders is introduced by U.S. Senator Elizabeth Warren during a rally at the Orpheum Theatre in Boston on Mar. 31, 2017.
Photo by Barry Chin/The Boston Globe via Getty Images
In America, the average family income is $61,732. While not a luxurious life, families at that income bracket get by — often with debt and, sadly, losing more of the societal benefits once afforded to the middle class. Billionaires would still be able to live extraordinary lives with a higher tax percentage, lifestyles that few in this nation will ever attain. The only group that would argue the fact would be billionaires (and those enabling them for their own small slice).
Getting there will be another story. While Sanders is keen on arguing for the Northern European societies, Zucman has stated that Europe's wealth taxes are irrelevant to the United States: it is easy to move around the European continent to find more favorable tax laws, while those nations set the tax wealth bar too low, sometimes as low as $1 million.
Warren's plan doesn't kick in until $50 million while Sanders's starts at $32 million. They both actually fall on 2 percent at $50 million, Sanders just begins his a bit sooner with a 1 percent wealth tax. As Saez and Zucman argue, globalization is no excuse: nations can hold corporations — and therefore, the CEOs of those companies — accountable for the percentage of earned income in their country.
If Apple or Nestle earn 20 percent of their profits in the United States, they can be held accountable for paying a higher rate on that fifth of their yearly revenue. The same can be applied to assets of the wealthiest, not only their claimed annual earnings or capital gains.
Regardless of precedent, Zucman pushes back on the notion that Americans only care about efficiency and not equality:
"These things change a lot, and it's a very naive and historically wrong view. France used to be very unequal for a long time. It cares about equality, but the U.S. used to care even more and used to be even more equal than France."
To care, we have to pick out signal from noise. In a response to criticisms that his plans go "too far," in June, Zucman, along with Saez, responded, "They start from the premise that the rich cannot be taxed, to arrive at the conclusion that a tax on the rich would not collect much." Specifics might be argued over for some time to come, but the notion that collecting more taxes from the 1 percent would not help society is pure noise.
Collectively, we need to tune into the signal that noise is hiding.
Educators and administrators must build new supports for faculty and student success in a world where the classroom might become virtual in the blink of an eye.
- If you or someone you know is attending school remotely, you are more than likely learning through emergency remote instruction, which is not the same as online learning, write Rich DeMillo and Steve Harmon.
- Education institutions must properly define and understand the difference between a course that is designed from inception to be taught in an online format and a course that has been rapidly converted to be offered to remote students.
- In a future involving more online instruction than any of us ever imagined, it will be crucial to meticulously design factors like learner navigation, interactive recordings, feedback loops, exams and office hours in order to maximize learning potential within the virtual environment.
A leading British space scientist thinks there is life under the ice sheets of Europa.
- A British scientist named Professor Monica Grady recently came out in support of extraterrestrial life on Europa.
- Europa, the sixth largest moon in the solar system, may have favorable conditions for life under its miles of ice.
- The moon is one of Jupiter's 79.
Neil deGrasse Tyson wants to go ice fishing on Europa<div class="rm-shortcode" data-media_id="GLGsRX7e" data-player_id="FvQKszTI" data-rm-shortcode-id="f4790eb8f0515e036b24c4195299df28"> <div id="botr_GLGsRX7e_FvQKszTI_div" class="jwplayer-media" data-jwplayer-video-src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/GLGsRX7e-FvQKszTI.js"> <img src="https://cdn.jwplayer.com/thumbs/GLGsRX7e-1920.jpg" class="jwplayer-media-preview" /> </div> <script src="https://content.jwplatform.com/players/GLGsRX7e-FvQKszTI.js"></script> </div>
Water Vapor Above Europa’s Surface Deteced for First Time<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9c4abc8473e1b89170cc8941beeb1f2d"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/WQ-E1lnSOzc?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
New study shows white dwarf stars create an essential component of life.
- White dwarf stars create carbon atoms in the Milky Way galaxy, shows new study.
- Carbon is an essential component of life.
- White dwarfs make carbon in their hot insides before the stars die.
What Are White Dwarf Stars?<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="7b046e546ce994682b2553a8c978eb32"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/77a1KSxfaR0?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Master negotiator Chris Voss breaks down how to get what you want during negotiations.
- Former FBI negotiator Chris Voss explains how forced empathy is a powerful negotiating tactic.
- The key is starting a sentence with "What" or "How," causing the other person to look at the situation through your eyes.
- What appears to signal weakness is turned into a strength when using this tactic.
3 Tips on Negotiations, with FBI Negotiator Chris Voss | Best of '16 | Big Think<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="b86d518e9f0c9f9d7a7c686e07798152"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/-FLlBchonwM?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span><p>This question forces a response, but—and this is key—the other person has to consider your side of the argument. They have to look at the situation from your perspective if they hope to offer a solution.</p><p>Offering a real-world example, Voss mentions coaching a high-end real estate agent. They were leasing an expensive home in the Hollywood Hills. The first time the negotiators asked the "how" question, the leasing agent relented on a number of terms. A little while later, they asked again. This time, the agent said, "If you want the house you're going to have to do it," signaling that the end of negotiations had been reached. </p><p>Voss says that "how" is not the only word that works. "What" is also a powerful entry into negotiations, such as "What am I supposed to do?" Again, you're forcing the other person to empathize. </p><p>This is a particularly tricky skill during a time when most conversations are online. Nuance is impossible without the immediacy of pantomimes and vocal fluctuations. Whataboutism is too easy an escape. </p>
Aikido Morihei Ueshiba (1883 - 1969, standing, centre left), founder of the Japanese martial art of aikido, demonstrating his art with a follower, at the opening ceremony of the newly-opened aikido headquarters, Hombu Dojo, in Shinjuku, Tokyo, 1967.
(Photo by Keystone/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)<p>Online debates often amount to little more than frustrated individuals pulling out their hair. In his book, "Against Empathy," Yale psychology professor Paul Bloom writes that effective altruists are able to focus on what really matters in everyday life.</p><p>For example, he compares politics to sports. Rooting for your favorite team isn't based in rationality. If you're a Red Sox fan, Yankees stats don't matter. You just want to destroy them. This, he believes, is how most people treat politics. "They don't care about truth because, for them, it's not really about truth."</p><p>Bloom writes that if his son believed our ancestors rode dinosaurs, it would horrify him, but "I can't think of a view that matters less for everyday life." We have to strive for rationality when the stakes are high. When involved in real decision-making processes that will affect their life, people are better able to express ideas and make arguments, and are more receptive to opposing ideas. </p><p>Because we "become inured to problems that seem unrelenting," it's imperative to make the problem seem immediate. As Voss says, giving the other side "the illusion of control" is one way of accomplishing this, as it forces them to take action. When people feel out of control, negotiations are impossible. People dig their heels in and refuse to budge. </p><p>What seems to be weakness is actually a strength. To borrow another martial arts metaphor, negotiations are like aikido: using your opponent's force against them while also protecting them from injury. Forcing empathy is one way to accomplish this task. You may get more than you ask for without the other side ever realizing they surrendered anything.</p><p>--</p><p><em>Stay in touch with Derek on <a href="http://www.twitter.com/derekberes" target="_blank">Twitter</a>, <a href="https://www.facebook.com/DerekBeresdotcom" target="_blank">Facebook</a> and <a href="https://derekberes.substack.com/" target="_blank">Substack</a>. His next book is</em> "<em>Hero's Dose: The Case For Psychedelics in Ritual and Therapy."</em></p>