from the world's big
Are we confusing money with well-being? New Zealand's leaders believe so.
New Zealand's recent budget policy puts the health and well-being of its citizens over economic growth.
- Economists and politicians have traditionally focused on economic growth to set policy and measure how citizens fare.
- New Zealand has become the first country to put well-being, not growth or production, at the center of its economic policy.
- Calls for "purposeful capitalism" are emerging in other countries, including the United States.
Politicians love to flaunt economic growth. A healthy gross domestic product (GDP) means an economy is doing well, which means the country is doing well, which means its citizens are doing well. It's all thanks to sagacious policy crafted by our savvy political leaders.
That's the rosy narrative anyway. In truth, GDP measures the average of per capita output in an economy overall, but tells us little about the prosperity of individual citizens.
For example, GDP can increase in tandem with income inequality. Social mobility can be quashed even within a prosperous economy. Corruption can take root in rich countries. And production measurements can ignore consequences such as environment degradation.
Some economists argue that our love affair with GDP needs to end and be replaced with more robust economic measurements. As Nobel Prize laureate Michael Spence told The Atlantic:
"Many of us think we would benefit from a multi-dimensional approach that captures things people care about. Missing from [economic] growth are many things: health, distributional aspects of growth patterns, sense of security, freedoms of various kinds, leisure broadly defined, and more."
New Zealand's Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern has taken up that call. Last month the island nation unveiled its new well-being budget, a policy designed to put the health and happiness of its citizens at the economic fore.
Happiness as a benchmark of success
Prime Minister-designate of New Zealand Jacinda Ardern before her swearing in. Photo credit: Governor-General of New Zealand/Wikimedia Commons
New Zealand's new economic policy will shift away from growth and production as a measure of economic success. As noted in New York Times, its new focus will be on "goals like community and cultural connection and equity in well-being across generations." While other countries have reconsidered traditional economic metrics, New Zealand is the first to initiate such a wellbeing-guided policy.
"This is not woolly, it's critical," Ardern said at the World Economic Forum's 2019 meeting in Davos. "This is how we bring meaning and results for the people who vote for us. It's not ideological either. It's about finally saying this how [sic] we meet expectations and try and build trust back into our institutions again, no matter where we are in the world."
The revised policy sets five priorities for New Zealand's governmental spending: thriving in the digital age; improving mental health services; reducing child poverty; developing a low-emission, sustainable economy; and addressing inequality, especially among the country's Maori and Pacific Island peoples.
The new policy has earmarked nearly NZ$2 billion for mental health services. (New Zealand has one of the highest teen and young adult suicide rates among Western democracies.) Resources have also been designated for child poverty and long-term shelter for the homeless, more than NZ$1 billion and NZ$200 million respectively.
Of course, not every New Zealander is onboard with the budget's new direction. "New Zealanders won't benefit from a government that is ignoring the slowing economy and focusing instead on branding," Amy Adams, a lawmaker in the opposition National Party, said in a statement to the Times. "We're facing significant economic risks over coming years, but this government is focusing on a marketing campaign."
A well-being paradigm shift?
As noted by the World Economic Forum, it will take years for New Zealand to refine its goals and then quantify the results, but other countries' well-being experiments will help us gather data in the meantime.
The United Arab Emirates employs a Minister of State for Happiness and a National Program for Happiness and Well-Being. The program sets benchmarks for happiness and fosters conditions of well-being that allow employees to thrive within the country's economy.
Elsewhere, Bhutan uses a Gross National Happiness index to evaluate its citizens well-being and incentivize policymakers. The index measures nine categories, among them health, education, time use, living standards, and community vitality.
Neither country has budgeted for well-being as New Zealand has, and they still use the GDP growth standard. But both have supplemented traditional economics with more purposeful economic thinking.
Capitalism: the root of all happiness
Can a more purposeful capitalism take root in the United States and other Western democracies? That answer will depend on a whole host of variables, among them New Zealand's successes and failures. However, there are already calls for similar changes to take place stateside.
In his book The War on Normal People, Democratic presidential candidate Andrew Yang laid the foundation for what he calls "human-centered capitalism." Yang wants to establish a universal basic income that gives Americans over the age of 18 $1,000 a month, no strings attached. Yang's so-called "freedom dividend" is the centerpiece of his policy, but his aim is wider is scope. He wants the market to support human experiences it previously undervalued, such as the arts, parenting, teaching, the environment, community connections, and disenfranchised groups.
"We must make the market serve humanity rather than have humanity continue to serve the market. We must simultaneously become more dynamic and more empathetic as a society," Yang writes.
Similarly, the Green New Deal supports a multiplex of ideas that would feel at home with a wellbeing-based capitalism. To name a few: universal health care, a right to affordable housing, the restoration of Glass-Steagall, and debt relief for students and homeowners.
New Zealand is a small island nation — and so out of the way that it's often forgotten by mapmakers. Yet, it could be the start of some big changes in how we measure progress and happiness.
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A 2017 University of Wisconsin-Madison study was the first of it's kind to show structural differences in the psychopathic brain.
- According to a 2017 study led by the University of Wisconsin-Madison, psychopaths have reduced connections in the areas of the brain that control fear, anxiety, empathy and sentimentality.
- Psychopathy is typically diagnosed using a 20-item checklist called the Hare Psychopathy Checklist.
- Psychopathic tendencies could be considered "warning signs" of psychopathy, but it's important to note that not everyone who shows psychopathic tendencies becomes a psychopath.
Defining psychopathy<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzQxMDkwMi9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYwNTk2MTAyOH0.yVAVp2AYmR0i5hPAhhY-R1jafU2y0shl5R35K2rOnCg/img.jpg?width=1245&coordinates=0%2C92%2C0%2C92&height=700" id="531fa" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="d45c27dc8187d30f709739ca98c9913f" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="concept of psychopathy split personality manipulation and deceit man showing half his true face" />
Psychopathy is typically diagnosed using a 20-item checklist called the Hare Psychopathy Checklist.
Photo by FGC on Shutterstock<p>Psychopathy, like many other conditions, is a spectrum. Common traits of psychopaths can include things like superficial charm, grandiose sense of self-worth, pathological lying, manipulation, lack of remorse or guilt, lack of empathy, behavioral problems in early life, impulsivity, and shallow affect (reduced emotional responses) to name a few.<br></p><p>Psychopathy is typically diagnosed using a 20-item checklist called the <a href="http://www.clintools.com/victims/resources/assessment/personality/psychopathy_checklist.html" target="_blank">Hare Psychopathy Checklist</a>. This list features questions that gauge common traits such as a lack of empathy, pathological lying, and impulsivity (among many others). </p><p>Each question on this scale is then scored on a three-point scale: The item doesn't apply (0), the item applies to a certain extend (1), or the question fully applies (2). The bar for "clinical psychopathy" is 30 points on this test. </p><p>For reference, here are some of the scores of notable evaluations: </p><p>Ted Bundy - 39/40<br>Richard Ramirez - 31/40<br>Brian David Mitchell - 34/40</p><p><strong>Differentiating psychopathy and sociopathy </strong></p><p>The terms "psychopath" and "sociopath" are often used interchangeably but they aren't the same - and the <a href="https://psychcentral.com/blog/differences-between-a-psychopath-vs-sociopath/#:~:text=Psychopaths%20tend%20to%20be%20more,much%20of%20a%20normal%20life." target="_blank">difference is quite important</a>. A sociopath is someone with antisocial tendencies that are specific to social or environmental factors. A psychopath is someone whose traits are more innate.</p><p>A psychopath will be more manipulative but can be seen by others to lead a charming, "normal" life - whereas sociopaths tend to be more erratic, rage-prone, and are unable to keep up the facade of normality. </p>
Psychopathic tendencies versus psychopathy<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yMzQxMDkwNS9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYzNjYzMTQ5OX0.IkfptXc5e1auSwTo_Bqpasjwbh4i1nLS8r8Xmm2EJEI/img.jpg?width=980" id="8b403" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="0581a77d5f1e4b73e07c019aeda5971d" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" alt="concept of trying on many faces hiding your true personality psychopath" />
A psychopath may be able to create a seemingly typical personality and life to fool others. Psychopathic tendencies don't always extend into psychopathy.
Photo by FGC on Shutterstock<p><strong>What causes psychopathy?</strong></p><p>Brain anatomy, genetics, and the person's environment may all contribute to the development of psychopathic traits. However, it's important to note that not all psychopathic traits and tendencies mean the person will grow into a psychopath.</p><p><strong>What are psychopathic tendencies? </strong></p><p>Psychopathic tendencies could be considered warning signs of psychopathy, but it's important to note that not everyone who shows psychopathic tendencies becomes a psychopath. Some, with the intervention of various therapies and strong, nurturing relationships, can assimilate to a relatively normal way of life. </p><p>The most well-known case of this would be the case of Beth Thomas. The subject of a 1990 documentary entitled "Child of Rage," Beth began to show psychopathic tendencies extremely early in life after suffering physical neglect and sexual abuse at the hands of her birth father before the age of one. </p><p>Later moved into an adoptive family where she could get the help she needs, the documentary (<a href="https://www.bitchute.com/video/pr3tmwyZAn0f/" target="_blank">which you can view here</a>, be warned, this footage may be disturbing to some) showed the disturbing thought process of a young 6-year-old girl struggling with an attachment disorder that led to psychopathic tendencies. </p><p>However, Beth, with the help of her adoptive family and professionals, became a <a href="https://www.bitchute.com/video/pr3tmwyZAn0f/" target="_blank">relatively typical young woman</a> who works as a nurse and has co-authored a book called "More Than a Thread of Hope" with her adoptive mother.</p><p><strong>Psychopaths' brains show differences in structure and function</strong></p><p><a href="https://www.med.wisc.edu/news-and-events/2011/november/psychopaths-brains-differences-structure-function/" target="_blank">According to a 2017 study</a> led by the University of Wisconsin-Madison, psychopaths have reduced connections in their brains between the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and the amygdala. </p><p>This is noteworthy because of the functions of both parts in play - the vmPFC is responsible for sentimentality, empathy and guilt and the amygdala mediates fear and anxiety. </p><p>Not only did the research here show there were differences in how these parts of the psychopathic brain functioned, but this was the first study of it's kind to show physical (structural) differences in the brains of psychopaths. </p><p><strong>How common is psychopathy? </strong></p><p>While there may never be a specific answer to this, there have been several studies that can give us insight into how common psychopathy is. <a href="https://www.livescience.com/16585-psychopaths-speech-language.html#:~:text=Psychopaths%20make%20up%20about%201,profoundly%20selfish%20and%20lack%20emotion." target="_blank">According to most research</a>, psychopaths make up about 1 percent of the general population. <a href="https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/what-mentally-strong-people-dont-do/201602/5-traits-actual-psychopaths#:~:text=While%20about%20one%20percent%20of,the%20criteria%20for%20being%20psychopaths.)" target="_blank">Additional research</a> claims up to 15 percent of the U.S prison population may meet the criteria for being psychopaths. </p>
A new study looks at what would happen to human language on a long journey to other star systems.
- A new study proposes that language could change dramatically on long space voyages.
- Spacefaring people might lose the ability to understand the people of Earth.
- This scenario is of particular concern for potential "generation ships".
Generation Ships<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="a1e6445c7168d293a6da3f9600f534a2"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/H2f0Wd3zNj0?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
Many of the most popular apps are about self-improvement.
Emotions are the newest hot commodity, and we can't get enough.