Subscribe to our daily newsletter
The ‘Greta effect’: Can Thunberg’s activism actually change policy?
In Canada and Austria, there are some signs that the young Swedish activist is already reshaping the political landscape.
- Greta Thunberg is the 16-year-old Swedish climate activist who recently criticized United Nations members for failing to do more on climate change.
- Since her speech and the global climate strikes last week, Austria's Green Party saw a surge in support, while Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau saw a drop in support among young Canadians.
- Thunberg has received waves of criticism since her speech.
After inspiring global climate strikes and chiding United Nations members over their inaction on climate change, activist Greta Thunberg has successfully conjured a new sense of urgency over climate change, especially among young people across the globe. Still, it remains unclear whether the activism she's inspired will actually change climate policies.
In Europe, there are some early signs that nations might soon have a better chance of passing significant emissions regulations, possibly due to a "Greta Thunberg effect," as Bloomberg suggests. The most striking evidence comes from Austria, where results from an election on Sunday showed that support for the Green Party had tripled, scoring 14 percent of the vote. Austria's conservative People's Party remains in power, but the surprise results position the Greens as a potential coalition partner.
"The thematic development really helped the Greens, I'm thinking here of Greta Thunberg and the climate protests," Social Democrats Managing Director Thomas Drozda said in an ORF television interview. "This is an area where the Greens have had credibility for the last 20 or 25 years."
Meanwhile, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, who posted to Instagram a photo of herself speaking with Thunberg, is seeking to position herself as a leader on climate change in her nation and the European Union. In July, Merkel said Thunberg and other young activists are speeding up efforts to pass climate policies in Europe.
"The seriousness with which Greta, but also many, many other young people, are telling us that this is about their lives, and that their life spans extend further, has led us to approach the matter more resolutely," Merkel said.
In September, Merkel and several other E.U. nations endorsed a climate package that aimed to end greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, but the effort was blocked by Poland.
Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau also seemed to want to position himself as a leader on climate action. But in the wake of a meeting he had with Thunberg, during which the 16-year-old activist said he wasn't doing enough on climate change, Trudeau's support among young voters dropped by more than 10 percent, according to polling data from Nanos Research.
"I think we're going to call this the Greta Thunberg effect," Nik Nanos said on CTV's "Trend Line" podcast. "What's it like to have Greta Thunberg tell the prime minister … 'You're not doing enough?'"
But while Thunberg has been criticizing world leaders over climate inaction, the young activist, who's been diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome, has been attacked and slandered online and in the media. The bulk of these attacks come from right-wing critics, who have generally gone after her indignant tone, or suggested that she's being exploited by the politically motivated adults around her.
On the more extreme side, internet trolls have photoshopped images of Thunberg, including one that depicts her with the American financier George Soros, another that suggests she supports the Islamic State, and one doctored photo showing her eating lunch next to starving children.
Of course, not all of Thunberg's critics were unreasonable or malicious. For example, Reason's Nick Gillespie suggested that the activist's "histrionics" were counterproductive to developing good climate change policy. Jake Novak, writing for CNBC, took issue with the fact that Thunberg "and the adults guiding her, are seeking to shift almost all the focus from personal responsibility to governments and big corporations to enact environmental reform." This, according to Novak, represents a "shift from the 'Think Globally, Act Locally,' environmental philosophy of the 1980s and 1990s," and threatens to turn environmentalism into another "wedge issue that politicians often use to motivate their base of voters."
But the sheer volume of Thunberg's critics and supporters shows that she's succeeded in starting a new conservation on climate change."Speaking as a climate change scientist who has been working on this issue for 20 years and saying the same thing for 20 years, she is getting people to listen, which we have failed to do," Saleemul Huq, director of the International Centre for Climate Change & Development in Bangladesh, told NBC. "I thought it was the most powerful speech I've ever seen."
The team caught a glimpse of a process that takes 18,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years.
- In Italy, a team of scientists is using a highly sophisticated detector to hunt for dark matter.
- The team observed an ultra-rare particle interaction that reveals the half-life of a xenon-124 atom to be 18 sextillion years.
- The half-life of a process is how long it takes for half of the radioactive nuclei present in a sample to decay.
A study looks at the ingredients of a good scare.
Catching fear in a bottle<img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDYyNzg1Ny9vcmlnaW4uanBnIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTYyOTQwMTcyMn0.WtpJ1E_dhK2o09fBpKARynj4_p5NXeklgsXsbd7xr9w/img.jpg?width=980" id="8ff51" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="f10dd9188b173f4a36e85e9325507c6b" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
Credit: Photo Boards/Unsplash<p>Previous studies have tracked physiological signs of fear arousal, but none have established a one-to-one correlation between that arousal and specific, actual fear events.</p><p>Andersen says that much of the research has been conducted in lab settings with weak fear stimuli, observing subjects as they experience things like scary videos. Scares in these situations tend to be weak and difficult to measure. Even harder to track in these situations is the link between enjoyment and fear. </p>
Eyes everywhere<iframe src="https://player.vimeo.com/video/109695164" width="100%" height="480" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="267ba87cfb8591ed5830499574d2272a"></iframe><p>Andersen and his colleagues conducted their experiments at <a href="https://dystopia.dk" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Dystopia</a> Haunted House, a commercial attraction in Vejle, Denmark constructed in an old, run-down factory. The Recreational Fear Lab has a long-standing partnership with the spook shack.</p><p>They outfitted 100 volunteers with heart monitors and sent them on their terrifying way through the 50-room horror mansion. The facility incorporates a number of fright mechanisms including frequent jump scares in which a sudden threat takes a visitor by surprise.</p><p>Researchers surreptitiously observed their participants on closed-circuit video as they made their way through the attraction. They tracked each individual's scares, scoring them for intensity according to their visible reactions. After exiting the attraction, individuals self-reported their experiences in the haunted house.</p><p>Combining these self-reports with observer notes and each participant's heart-rate data gave the researchers subjective, behavioral, and physiological insights into the ways in which fear is experienced, and when it's a good thing or not.</p>
A pair of inverted U-shapes<p>In analyzing their data, the researchers saw two separate inverted u-shape curves. One depicted participants' enjoyment based on their self-reports and observed behavior. A similar u-curve was detected in their heart rates showing that just the right amount of heartbeat acceleration is associated with fun, but too much is too much. It's the terror Goldilocks zone.</p><p>Says Andersen, "If people are not very scared, they do not enjoy the attraction as much, and the same happens if they are too scared. Instead, it seems to be the case that a 'just-right' amount of fear is central for maximizing enjoyment."</p><p>The research suggests that being scared is enjoyable when it represents just a quick minor physiological deviation from one's normal state. When it goes on too long, however, or triggers too severe a physiological change, it becomes disturbing. Game over.</p><p>Andersen notes that this is not dissimilar to the factors known to make interpersonal play enjoyable: just the right amount of uncertainty and surprise. These are, maybe not coincidentally, also the ingredients of a successful joke.</p>
A meteorite that smashed into a frozen lake in Michigan may explain the origins of life on Earth, finds study.
- A new paper reveals a meteorite that crashed in Michigan in 2018 contained organic matter.
- The findings support the panspermia theory and could explain the origins of life on Earth.
- The organic compounds on the meteorite were well-preserved.
Meteor streaks through Michigan sky<span style="display:block;position:relative;padding-top:56.25%;" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="80b7f30820153b35fc515592d7475f53"><iframe type="lazy-iframe" data-runner-src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/EPu2qnqMYBo?rel=0" width="100%" height="auto" frameborder="0" scrolling="no" style="position:absolute;top:0;left:0;width:100%;height:100%;"></iframe></span>
The meteorite that smashed into Strawberry Lake carried pristine extraterrestrial organic compounds.
Credit: Field Museum