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There’s one way to stop school shootings without taking away anyone’s guns
One achievable solution can stop the epidemic of school shootings in the United States without restricting the guns of law-abiding citizens.
Another day, another horrible school shooting in America. This time 17 kids were ruthlessly gunned down at the Majory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida. By now, we have all gone through this nightmare many times and know the cycle that will follow. There will be blame thrown around, some will try to understand why the gunman did it, people will argue about guns, Congress will get pilloried, but nothing will change. We'll just have to wait until the next shooting to do this all over again.
Or we can say that we won't take it anymore. Outside of countries in war zones, the United States is the only place in the world that has school shootings on a regular basis. Why can't we pull ourselves together as a civilized society and fix this?
One way is to stop the arguing. We all can agree that we love our kids. So let's not make this about gun control or anything else that we can't agree about. Let's solve this by doing what Americans do: we throw money at the problem.
Kristi Gilroy (R), hugs a young woman at a police check point near the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School where 17 people were killed by a gunman yesterday, on February 15, 2018 in Parkland, Florida. (Photo by Mark Wilson/Getty Images)
What would it cost to put metal detectors, security guards and a police officer in every public school in America? Let's do the unthinkable: in this case, some math.
The U.S. Department of Justice estimates that while metal detectors may vary in price range, from $1,000 to upwards of $30,000, a reasonably-priced model of around $4,000 to $5,000 would have the features and reliability for a school environment.
How to avoid long bottlenecks in the morning, with students waiting to go through the detector? The experience of the New York Board of Education, with operates such programs successfully in about 50 inner-city high schools, shows that staggering the first period start times works to alleviate the problem of lines.
An additional cost of the detectors is the salary of the people who operate them. On average, NYC school officials have to fund an additional 100 security officer hours a week to run the detection program for a school of about 2,000 students. The hourly rate for such personnel ranges from $12 to $20 an hour, according to Glassdoor. So at the maximum rate, we are looking at an additional $2,000 per week for the requisite school staff. With about 36 weeks of instruction time per year, we are looking at an estimate of an additional $72,000 per year total in extra money that a school the size of a large high school would have to pay.
Students react at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland, Florida, a city about 50 miles (80 kilometers) north of Miami on February 14, 2018 following a school shooting. (Photo credit: MICHELE EVE SANDBERG/AFP/Getty Images)
Now let’s try to extrapolate this to the whole of the United States. According to the U.S Department of Education, there are about 100,000 public schools in the country, including all elementary, middle, high and vocational schools. There are also about 33,000 private schools.
At the rate of $5,000 per unit, it would cost about $500 million to equip all of the public schools with a metal detector.
If we take $72,000 per year in extra security guard pay as the base (and it's likely to be lower as not all schools are as large as a 2,000-person high school), we are looking at $7.2 billion per year in guard pay.
Another factor that could help increase security is having a police officer specifically assigned to each school in the United States. With the average police officer salary being around $61,000 per year, according to the U.S. Department of Labor, we would need another $6.1 billion to accomplish that goal.
So for about half a billion dollars in initial investment, and a total of about $13.3 billion in additional expenses every year, we can get our kids much better protected than they currently are. And the numbers are likely to get lower if we focus on this issue as a society, improving metal detectors and other technology that can keep the kids safe.
Fire Rescue personnel work the scene at the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School after a shooting at the school that reportedly killed and injured multiple people on February 14, 2018 in Parkland, Florida. (Photo by Joe Raedle/Getty Images)
Is $13.3 billion a year a large number? Sure, but if there's money for the kinds of changes President Trump proposes in his new budget that favors military and infrastructure spending, there could be money for this. Let's just say if there's a will, there's a way. We are a rich society that can afford to re-orient our priorities and funds to safeguard our kids.
Not to mention the actual monetary costs of gun violence. One estimate puts that number as high as $229 billion per year, which includes $8.6 billion in direct expenditures, such as imprisoning people convicted of homicide or assault, and $221 billion from indirect costs, such as lost wages. These numbers are not just for school violence expenditures, but you get the idea. We would very likely save more than we will spend. And we'll have kids who are alive to enjoy life in what is supposed to be the greatest country on Earth. At least that's what the politicians keep telling us.
Wondering how much it costs to protect a University? For about $2 million per year, the University of Kansas would get all primary athletic facilities secured (plus the cost of staff). That’s $2 million total to protect 50,000 spectators per event. The University of Arkansas’s main stadium would cost about $500,000 to outfit with metal detectors at the cost of $6,500 per metal detector. Installing 70 mobile detectors at two sports stadiums for Kansas State University in Manhattan would cost about a $1 million.
In Idaho, buying 54 metal detectors for Boise State University cost $250,000. It also costs $20,000 per game to set up and staff them, while renting tents to cover them runs another $3,500, with the barriers to guide fans towards the detectors running another $2,500.
Again, these might seem like large numbers but these universities have the budgets that can afford it. The University of Kansas, for example, has an annual budget of about $630 million.
You might think that installing metal detectors sends the message to the students that they are not safe, ruining some idyll of childhood they should be enjoying. But let’s face reality. They are not safe. Better to prepare them and protect them than see them carried out in body bags.
Inventions with revolutionary potential made by a mysterious aerospace engineer for the U.S. Navy come to light.
- U.S. Navy holds patents for enigmatic inventions by aerospace engineer Dr. Salvatore Pais.
- Pais came up with technology that can "engineer" reality, devising an ultrafast craft, a fusion reactor, and more.
- While mostly theoretical at this point, the inventions could transform energy, space, and military sectors.
The U.S. Navy controls patents for some futuristic and outlandish technologies, some of which, dubbed "the UFO patents," came to light recently. Of particular note are inventions by the somewhat mysterious Dr. Salvatore Cezar Pais, whose tech claims to be able to "engineer reality." His slate of highly-ambitious, borderline sci-fi designs meant for use by the U.S. government range from gravitational wave generators and compact fusion reactors to next-gen hybrid aerospace-underwater crafts with revolutionary propulsion systems, and beyond.
Of course, the existence of patents does not mean these technologies have actually been created, but there is evidence that some demonstrations of operability have been successfully carried out. As investigated and reported by The War Zone, a possible reason why some of the patents may have been taken on by the Navy is that the Chinese military may also be developing similar advanced gadgets.
Among Dr. Pais's patents are designs, approved in 2018, for an aerospace-underwater craft of incredible speed and maneuverability. This cone-shaped vehicle can potentially fly just as well anywhere it may be, whether air, water or space, without leaving any heat signatures. It can achieve this by creating a quantum vacuum around itself with a very dense polarized energy field. This vacuum would allow it to repel any molecule the craft comes in contact with, no matter the medium. Manipulating "quantum field fluctuations in the local vacuum energy state," would help reduce the craft's inertia. The polarized vacuum would dramatically decrease any elemental resistance and lead to "extreme speeds," claims the paper.
Not only that, if the vacuum-creating technology can be engineered, we'd also be able to "engineer the fabric of our reality at the most fundamental level," states the patent. This would lead to major advancements in aerospace propulsion and generating power. Not to mention other reality-changing outcomes that come to mind.
Among Pais's other patents are inventions that stem from similar thinking, outlining pieces of technology necessary to make his creations come to fruition. His paper presented in 2019, titled "Room Temperature Superconducting System for Use on a Hybrid Aerospace Undersea Craft," proposes a system that can achieve superconductivity at room temperatures. This would become "a highly disruptive technology, capable of a total paradigm change in Science and Technology," conveys Pais.
High frequency gravitational wave generator.
Credit: Dr. Salvatore Pais
Another invention devised by Pais is an electromagnetic field generator that could generate "an impenetrable defensive shield to sea and land as well as space-based military and civilian assets." This shield could protect from threats like anti-ship ballistic missiles, cruise missiles that evade radar, coronal mass ejections, military satellites, and even asteroids.
Dr. Pais's ideas center around the phenomenon he dubbed "The Pais Effect". He referred to it in his writings as the "controlled motion of electrically charged matter (from solid to plasma) via accelerated spin and/or accelerated vibration under rapid (yet smooth) acceleration-deceleration-acceleration transients." In less jargon-heavy terms, Pais claims to have figured out how to spin electromagnetic fields in order to contain a fusion reaction – an accomplishment that would lead to a tremendous change in power consumption and an abundance of energy.
According to his bio in a recently published paper on a new Plasma Compression Fusion Device, which could transform energy production, Dr. Pais is a mechanical and aerospace engineer working at the Naval Air Warfare Center Aircraft Division (NAWCAD), which is headquartered in Patuxent River, Maryland. Holding a Ph.D. from Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, Ohio, Pais was a NASA Research Fellow and worked with Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems. His current Department of Defense work involves his "advanced knowledge of theory, analysis, and modern experimental and computational methods in aerodynamics, along with an understanding of air-vehicle and missile design, especially in the domain of hypersonic power plant and vehicle design." He also has expert knowledge of electrooptics, emerging quantum technologies (laser power generation in particular), high-energy electromagnetic field generation, and the "breakthrough field of room temperature superconductivity, as related to advanced field propulsion."
Suffice it to say, with such a list of research credentials that would make Nikola Tesla proud, Dr. Pais seems well-positioned to carry out groundbreaking work.
A craft using an inertial mass reduction device.
Credit: Salvatore Pais
The patents won't necessarily lead to these technologies ever seeing the light of day. The research has its share of detractors and nonbelievers among other scientists, who think the amount of energy required for the fields described by Pais and his ideas on electromagnetic propulsions are well beyond the scope of current tech and are nearly impossible. Yet investigators at The War Zone found comments from Navy officials that indicate the inventions are being looked at seriously enough, and some tests are taking place.
If you'd like to read through Pais's patents yourself, check them out here.
Laser Augmented Turbojet Propulsion System
Credit: Dr. Salvatore Pais
China has reached a new record for nuclear fusion at 120 million degrees Celsius.
This article was originally published on our sister site, Freethink.
China wants to build a mini-star on Earth and house it in a reactor. Many teams across the globe have this same bold goal --- which would create unlimited clean energy via nuclear fusion.
But according to Chinese state media, New Atlas reports, the team at the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) has set a new world record: temperatures of 120 million degrees Celsius for 101 seconds.
Yeah, that's hot. So what? Nuclear fusion reactions require an insane amount of heat and pressure --- a temperature environment similar to the sun, which is approximately 150 million degrees C.
If scientists can essentially build a sun on Earth, they can create endless energy by mimicking how the sun does it.
If scientists can essentially build a sun on Earth, they can create endless energy by mimicking how the sun does it. In nuclear fusion, the extreme heat and pressure create a plasma. Then, within that plasma, two or more hydrogen nuclei crash together, merge into a heavier atom, and release a ton of energy in the process.
Nuclear fusion milestones: The team at EAST built a giant metal torus (similar in shape to a giant donut) with a series of magnetic coils. The coils hold hot plasma where the reactions occur. They've reached many milestones along the way.
According to New Atlas, in 2016, the scientists at EAST could heat hydrogen plasma to roughly 50 million degrees C for 102 seconds. Two years later, they reached 100 million degrees for 10 seconds.
The temperatures are impressive, but the short reaction times, and lack of pressure are another obstacle. Fusion is simple for the sun, because stars are massive and gravity provides even pressure all over the surface. The pressure squeezes hydrogen gas in the sun's core so immensely that several nuclei combine to form one atom, releasing energy.
But on Earth, we have to supply all of the pressure to keep the reaction going, and it has to be perfectly even. It's hard to do this for any length of time, and it uses a ton of energy. So the reactions usually fizzle out in minutes or seconds.
Still, the latest record of 120 million degrees and 101 seconds is one more step toward sustaining longer and hotter reactions.
Why does this matter? No one denies that humankind needs a clean, unlimited source of energy.
We all recognize that oil and gas are limited resources. But even wind and solar power --- renewable energies --- are fundamentally limited. They are dependent upon a breezy day or a cloudless sky, which we can't always count on.
Nuclear fusion is clean, safe, and environmentally sustainable --- its fuel is a nearly limitless resource since it is simply hydrogen (which can be easily made from water).
With each new milestone, we are creeping closer and closer to a breakthrough for unlimited, clean energy.
The symbol for love is the heart, but the brain may be more accurate.
- How love makes us feel can only be defined on an individual basis, but what it does to the body, specifically the brain, is now less abstract thanks to science.
- One of the problems with early-stage attraction, according to anthropologist Helen Fisher, is that it activates parts of the brain that are linked to drive, craving, obsession, and motivation, while other regions that deal with decision-making shut down.
- Dr. Fisher, professor Ted Fischer, and psychiatrist Gail Saltz explain the different types of love, explore the neuroscience of love and attraction, and share tips for sustaining relationships that are healthy and mutually beneficial.