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Depression and suicidal ideation reduced after psychedelic usage
Another study confirms the positive effects of psychedelics on mental health.
- Two studies found reduced rates in depression severity, suicidal ideation, and experiential avoidance four weeks after taking psychedelics.
- With hundreds of millions of dollars in investment flowing into psychedelics companies, a renaissance in the field is occurring.
- Researchers hope these findings will lead to better therapeutic modalities for mental health disorders.
From mysticism to mental health, the journey of psychedelics in American culture has been quite a trip. With hundreds of millions of dollars flowing into psychedelics startups—the "Rainbow Rush"—and a clinical study investigating the therapeutic effects of MDMA and LSD (besides many other single-substance trials), a renaissance is unfolding right before our eyes.
Researchers are picking up where their forebears left off. Hundreds of studies on LSD and psilocybin were conducted in the '50s and '60s. Psychiatrist Sidney Cohen wrote an extensive review in 1960 on the complications and side effects of LSD; he found minimal damaging effects in over 25,000 administrations. Likewise, psychiatrist Oscar Janiger used LSD therapeutically with 930 patients. He noted few adverse effects.
Writing about Janiger's experiments, medical anthropologist Marlene Dobkin de Rios notes, "The nature of the individual drug experience reflects the basic psychophysiological action of the substance as it interacts with the total life experience that the person brings to it."
The total life experience. Mental health today is expressed in terms of chemical imbalances, but that hypothesis has been on shaky ground for decades. Anxiety, depression, PTSD, suicidal ideation—conditions dependent on memories, environment, relationships, genetics, finances, a host of causes. Psychedelics help reframe your relationship to your situation, sometimes alleviating the existential weight of modernity.
How psychedelics can treat depression - Robin Carhart Harris
Dr Robin Carhart-Harris is the head of the Centre for Psychedelic Research at Imperial College London. He's published nearly a hundred studies on psychedelics. A recent research article, published in Frontiers in Psychiatry, found that the effects of psychedelics are associated with a decrease in the severity of depression and suicidal ideation.
The two studies in the article include 358 volunteers. Each participant filled out questionnaires about their levels of depression, suicidal ideation, and experiential avoidance—"openness to one's experiences and engagement in behaviors that are congruent with one's values." They then took part in either ceremonial psychedelic consumption (as in an ayahuasca ritual) or non-ceremonial usage. Carhart-Harris's team followed up two weeks and four weeks later.
The parameters of the first study were broad. The individuals had a variety of psychedelics to choose from: LSD, ayahuasca, DMT, salvia divinorum, mescaline, psilocybin mushrooms, or ibogaine. Interestingly, respondents that planned on using ketamine were excluded. While the sedative has recently been touted as a psychedelic, it's not classically considered in this regard.
The second study was slightly more structured, as the team accepted participants attending a psychedelic ceremony. This is especially important given the work by organizations like MAPS ( Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies), which is training psychedelic therapists in the hopes of legalized MDMA by 2023.
"Such ceremonies usually involve the presence of one or more "facilitators"—individuals who aim to provide a safe, conducive environment, emotional support, as well as certain contextual stimuli which are intended to enhance or structure the psychedelic experience."
Photo: fran_kies / Shutterstock
This research differs from previous studies in that psychedelic usage was not conducted in a clinical setting. As the environment is an important component of the psychedelic ritual, researchers are more likely to receive real-world results from anecdotal experiences. Letting go in a clinic poses challenges.
The results, the team writes, were overwhelmingly positive.
"Across two separate studies, we found significant decreases in depression severity and suicidal ideation 4-weeks after psychedelic use… We found that use of psychedelics was associated with decreases in experiential avoidance 2-weeks later and was sustained for at least 4-weeks."
Psychedelic researchers will continue to face is the difficulty of implementing a control group, although at least one study found that the placebo effect is relevant. A larger barrier will be financial support from pharmaceutical companies with vested interests in current drug protocols.
That said, this renaissance shows no signs of slowing. During a time when rates of anxiety, depression, and suicide are rising, a return to psychedelic rituals can help chip away at the frustration and confusion of this moment. These substances have been used for millennia to keep societies intact. Such ceremonies are sorely needed right now.
- From mushrooms to ecstasy, a renaissance in psychedelics ... ›
- Can psychedelics help prevent suicide? - Big Think ›
- Psychedelics alleviate anxiety and depression in an unexpected way ›
What is human dignity? Here's a primer, told through 200 years of great essays, lectures, and novels.
- Human dignity means that each of our lives have an unimpeachable value simply because we are human, and therefore we are deserving of a baseline level of respect.
- That baseline requires more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose.
- We look at incredible writings from the last 200 years that illustrate the push for human dignity in regards to slavery, equality, communism, free speech and education.
The inherent worth of all human beings<p>Human dignity is the inherent worth of each individual human being. Recognizing human dignity means respecting human beings' special value—value that sets us apart from other animals; value that is intrinsic and cannot be lost.</p> <p>Liberalism—the broad political philosophy that organizes society around liberty, justice, and equality—is rooted in the idea of human dignity. Liberalism assumes each of our lives, plans, and preferences have some unimpeachable value, not because of any objective evaluation or contribution to a greater good, but simply because they belong to a human being. We are human, and therefore deserving of a baseline level of respect. </p> <p>Because so many of us take human dignity for granted—just a fact of our humanness—it's usually only when someone's dignity is ignored or violated that we feel compelled to talk about it. </p> <p>But human dignity means more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose—a freedom that can be hampered by restrictive social institutions or the tyranny of the majority. The liberal ideal of the good society is not just peaceful but also pluralistic: It is a society in which we respect others' right to think and live differently than we do.</p>
From the 19th century to today<p>With <a href="https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?year_start=1800&year_end=2019&content=human+dignity&corpus=26&smoothing=3&direct_url=t1%3B%2Chuman%20dignity%3B%2Cc0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Google Books Ngram Viewer</a>, we can chart mentions of human dignity from 1800-2019.</p><img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDg0ODU0My9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MTUwMzE4MX0.bu0D_0uQuyNLyJjfRESNhu7twkJ5nxu8pQtfa1w3hZs/img.png?width=980" id="7ef38" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9974c7bef3812fcb36858f325889e3c6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
American novelist, writer, playwright, poet, essayist and civil rights activist James Baldwin at his home in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, southern France, on November 6, 1979.
Credit: Ralph Gatti/AFP via Getty Images
The future of dignity<p>Around the world, people are still working toward the full and equal recognition of human dignity. Every year, new speeches and writings help us understand what dignity is—not only what it looks like when dignity is violated but also what it looks like when dignity is honored. In his posthumous essay, Congressman Lewis wrote, "When historians pick up their pens to write the story of the 21st century, let them say that it was your generation who laid down the heavy burdens of hate at last and that peace finally triumphed over violence, aggression and war."</p> <p>The more we talk about human dignity, the better we understand it. And the sooner we can make progress toward a shared vision of peace, freedom, and mutual respect for all. </p>
With just a few strategical tweaks, the Nazis could have won one of World War II's most decisive battles.
- The Battle of Britain is widely recognized as one of the most significant battles that occurred during World War II. It marked the first major victory of the Allied forces and shifted the tide of the war.
- Historians, however, have long debated the deciding factor in the British victory and German defeat.
- A new mathematical model took into account numerous alternative tactics that the German's could have made and found that just two tweaks stood between them and victory over Britain.
Two strategic blunders<p>Now, historians and mathematicians from York St. John University have collaborated to produce <a href="http://www-users.york.ac.uk/~nm15/bootstrapBoB%20AAMS.docx" target="_blank">a statistical model (docx download)</a> capable of calculating what the likely outcomes of the Battle of Britain would have been had the circumstances been different. </p><p>Would the German war effort have fared better had they not bombed Britain at all? What if Hitler had begun his bombing campaign earlier, even by just a few weeks? What if they had focused their targets on RAF airfields for the entire course of the battle? Using a statistical technique called weighted bootstrapping, the researchers studied these and other alternatives.</p><p>"The weighted bootstrap technique allowed us to model alternative campaigns in which the Luftwaffe prolongs or contracts the different phases of the battle and varies its targets," said co-author Dr. Jaime Wood in a <a href="https://www.york.ac.uk/news-and-events/news/2020/research/mathematicians-battle-britain-what-if-scenarios/" target="_blank">statement</a>. Based on the different strategic decisions that the German forces could have made, the researchers' model enabled them to predict the likelihood that the events of a given day of fighting would or would not occur.</p><p>"The Luftwaffe would only have been able to make the necessary bases in France available to launch an air attack on Britain in June at the earliest, so our alternative campaign brings forward the air campaign by three weeks," continued Wood. "We tested the impact of this and the other counterfactuals by varying the probabilities with which we choose individual days."</p><p>Ultimately, two strategic tweaks shifted the odds significantly towards the Germans' favor. Had the German forces started their campaign earlier in the year and had they consistently targeted RAF airfields, an Allied victory would have been extremely unlikely.</p><p>Say the odds of a British victory in the real-world Battle of Britain stood at 50-50 (there's no real way of knowing what the actual odds are, so we'll just have to select an arbitrary figure). If this were the case, changing the start date of the campaign and focusing only on airfields would have reduced British chances at victory to just 10 percent. Even if a British victory stood at 98 percent, these changes would have cut them down to just 34 percent.</p>
A tool for understanding history<p>This technique, said co-author Niall Mackay, "demonstrates just how finely-balanced the outcomes of some of the biggest moments of history were. Even when we use the actual days' events of the battle, make a small change of timing or emphasis to the arrangement of those days and things might have turned out very differently."</p><p>The researchers also claimed that their technique could be applied to other uncertain historical events. "Weighted bootstrapping can provide a natural and intuitive tool for historians to investigate unrealized possibilities, informing historical controversies and debates," said Mackay.</p><p>Using this technique, researchers can evaluate other what-ifs and gain insight into how differently influential events could have turned out if only the slightest things had changed. For now, at least, we can all be thankful that Hitler underestimated Britain's grit.</p>
Apple sold its first iPod in 2001, and six years later it introduced the iPhone, which ushered in a new era of personal technology.
A biologist-reporter investigates his fungal namesake.
The unmatched biologist-reporter Tomasz Sitarz interviews his fungal namesake, maślak sitarz – known in English as the Jersey cow mushroom.