Unconscious Creativity: Step Back To Step Forward
It’s easy to see why, for most of human history, a creative insight was thought of as a divine spirit that came from “some distant and unknowable source, for distant and unknowable reason,” as Elizabeth Gilbert notes. In an instant, impasse gives way to revelation. And is it not peculiar that solutions come to us as a whole and not in pieces? But this is what defines a moment of insight: its unforeseen completeness.
To make sense of the mystery, psychologists as recent as the 1980s began studying moments of insight empirically. A key finding was that the unconscious mind, contrary to the Freudian picture, was an effective problem solver. Since then, research has confirmed ancient wisdom: when it comes to creative breakthroughs, it’s better to relax and let the unconscious mind do the work.
Consider a series of experiments carried out in 2006 by Dutch researchers Ap Dijksterhuis and Teun Meurs. The scientists wanted to explore how the cognitive unconscious works during periods of incubation. Does “taking a step back” from a problem have scientific merit?
In one experiment the team asked participants to generate a list of “things one can do with a brick.” There were three groups that generating a list either immediately upon request, after three minutes of conscious deliberation, or after engaging a distracter task for three minutes. The purpose of this delay was to give the participants’ unconscious minds a chance to marinate the problem, to prevent the conscious mind from getting in the way.
Dijksterhuis and Meurs found no difference in the number of items each group generated. However, their data showed that participants engaged in a distracter task were more divergent and creative with their lists – their unconscious minds had time to be creative! The authors concluded that, “upon being confronted with a task that requires a certain degree of creativity, it pays off to delegate the labor of thinking to the unconscious mind.”
In a related study out of the Radboud University in the Netherlands Simone Ritter (who is part of Dijksterhuis’ lab) gave 112 university students two minutes to generate creative solutions that could improve the experience of waiting in line at a cash register. Ritter created two groups: half tackled the problem right away, while the others played a video game for two minutes (again, to give their unconscious minds a chance to think about it).
Next, she asked both groups to choose which of their ideas were the most creative. Ritter found that both groups generated the same number of new ideas. But she also discovered, in congruence with the previous study, that the group that played videogames was much better at identifying their best ideas: “While those in the conscious condition only picked their most innovative concepts about 20 percent of the time — they confused their genius with their mediocrity — those who had been distracted located their best ideas about 55 percent of the time. In other words, they were twice as good at figuring out which concepts deserved more attention.”
Additional research by Dijksterhuis and his collaborators demonstrates similar results: the cognitive unconscious is not only intelligent and highly active; it’s surprisingly effective at generating creative solutions to difficult problems. When we’re stuck, then, consciously thinking about solutions might be counterproductive. Sometimes the best thing to do is ignore your mental stalemate.
This brings me to a new study conducted by Azurji K. Collier and Mark Beeman released in the Journal of Problem Solving. The researchers gathered 57 Northwestern undergraduates and asked them to solve 96 Compound Remote Associate problems. For example, the students viewed three words (crab, pine, sauce) and tried to generate a word (apple) that formed a compound word with each of them (crabapple, pineapple, applesauce). If the students were unable to generate a solution they indicated if they experienced a strong TOT (Tip-of-the-Tongue experience), a weak TOT or no TOT. They also indicated how difficult each CRA problem was. (Collier and Beeman combined strong TOTs with weak TOTs later in the study)
The experiment took place over two days. At the end of the first day – after the students tackled the 96 CRA problems - Collier and Beeman told the students they would receive a new set of problems the next day and to not think about problems from the first day anymore. On the second day (24 hours later +/- 2 hours), Collier and Beeman gave the students 48 new problems and all of the unsolved problems from day one. Interestingly, they found that students solved a greater percentage of problems from day one that produced a strong TOT experience than problems from day one that produced a weak or no TOT experience.
Here are the scientists:
When individuals were unable to generate the solution to a remote associate problem, but experienced a TOT (a sense that they were close, or that they had some solution related information in the back of their mind), they were more likely to solve those problems (compared to problems when they did not experience a TOT) after an overnight incubation period.
What’s particularly interesting is that when the undergrads arrived for the second round of testing none of them reported thinking about the problems over night:
It is unlikely that our TOT specific incubation effect was based on continued conscious work that was carried out on problems that elicited TOT experiences. Clearly, failure to solve any problem indicates a need for continued effort, but no participant reported consciously working on or solving any problems (No-TOT or Yes-TOT) during the incubation delay.
It should be noted that Collier and Beeman did not find the same effect for easy CRA problems. “Unsolved Day 1 problems that were rated as easy were no more likely to be solved on Day 2 compared to problems that were rated as hard.”
What does this research tell us? When it comes to insight-based solutions the best strategy is to let your unconscious mind do the work. The neuroscience legend Eric Kandel explains this notion his latest book The Age of Insight: “When we take the wrong approach to a problem, which happens often, we get nowhere by continuing to think about it. But if we refrain from thinking about the problem and distract ourselves… [we] transition from a rigid, convergent perspective to an associative, divergent perspective.”
To create wiser adults, add empathy to the school curriculum.
- Stories are at the heart of learning, writes Cleary Vaughan-Lee, Executive Director for the Global Oneness Project. They have always challenged us to think beyond ourselves, expanding our experience and revealing deep truths.
- Vaughan-Lee explains 6 ways that storytelling can foster empathy and deliver powerful learning experiences.
- Global Oneness Project is a free library of stories—containing short documentaries, photo essays, and essays—that each contain a companion lesson plan and learning activities for students so they can expand their experience of the world.
Philosophers like to present their works as if everything before it was wrong. Sometimes, they even say they have ended the need for more philosophy. So, what happens when somebody realizes they were mistaken?
Sometimes philosophers are wrong and admitting that you could be wrong is a big part of being a real philosopher. While most philosophers make minor adjustments to their arguments to correct for mistakes, others make large shifts in their thinking. Here, we have four philosophers who went back on what they said earlier in often radical ways.
Numerous U.S. Presidents invoked the Insurrection Act to to quell race and labor riots.
- U.S. Presidents have invoked the Insurrection Act on numerous occasions.
- The controversial law gives the President some power to bring in troops to police the American people.
- The Act has been used mainly to restore order following race and labor riots.
It looks like a busy hurricane season ahead. Probably.
- Before the hurricane season even started in 2020, Arthur and Bertha had already blown through, and Cristobal may be brewing right now.
- Weather forecasters see signs of a rough season ahead, with just a couple of reasons why maybe not.
- Where's an El Niño when you need one?
Welcome to Hurricane Season 2020. 2020, of course, scoffs at this calendric event much as it has everything else that's normal — meteorologists have already used up the year's A and B storm names before we even got here. And while early storms don't necessarily mean a bruising season ahead, forecasters expect an active season this year. Maybe storms will blow away the murder hornets and 13-year locusts we had planned.
NOAA expects a busy season
According to NOAA's Climate Prediction Center, an agency of the National Weather Service, there's a 60 percent chance that we're embarking upon a season with more storms than normal. There does, however, remain a 30 percent it'll be normal. Better than usual? Unlikely: Just a 10 percent chance.
Where a normal hurricane season has an average of 12 named storms, 6 of which become hurricanes and 3 of which are major hurricanes, the Climate Prediction Center reckons we're on track for 13 to 29 storms, 6 to 10 of which will become hurricanes, and 3 to 6 of these will be category 3, 4, or 5, packing winds of 111 mph or higher.
What has forecasters concerned are two factors in particular.
This year's El Niño ("Little Boy") looks to be more of a La Niña ("Little Girl"). The two conditions are part of what's called the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) cycle, which describes temperature fluctuations between the ocean and atmosphere in the east-central Equatorial Pacific. With an El Niño, waters in the Pacific are unusually warm, whereas a La Niña means unusually cool waters. NOAA says that an El Niño can suppress hurricane formation in the Atlantic, and this year that mitigating effect is unlikely to be present.
Second, current conditions in the Atlantic and Caribbean suggest a fertile hurricane environment:
- The ocean there is warmer than usual.
- There's reduced vertical wind shear.
- Atlantic tropical trade winds are weak.
- There have been strong West African monsoons this year.
Here's NOAA's video laying out their forecast:
ArsTechnica spoke to hurricane scientist Phil Klotzbach, who agrees generally with NOAA, saying, "All in all, signs are certainly pointing towards an active season." Still, he notes a couple of signals that contradict that worrying outlook.
First off, Klotzbach notes that the surest sign of a rough hurricane season is when its earliest storms form in the deep tropics south of 25°N and east of the Lesser Antilles. "When you get storm formations here prior to June 1, it's typically a harbinger of an extremely active season." Fortunately, this year's hurricanes Arthur and Bertha, as well as the maybe-imminent Cristobal, formed outside this region. So there's that.
Second, Klotzbach notes that the correlation between early storm activity and a season's number of storms and intensities, is actually slightly negative. So while statistical connections aren't strongly predictive, there's at least some reason to think these early storms may augur an easy season ahead.
Image source: NOAA
Batten down the hatches early
If 2020's taught us anything, it's how to juggle multiple crises at once, and layering an active hurricane season on top of SARS-CoV-2 — not to mention everything else — poses a special challenge. Warns Treasury Secretary Wilbur Ross, "As Americans focus their attention on a safe and healthy reopening of our country, it remains critically important that we also remember to make the necessary preparations for the upcoming hurricane season." If, as many medical experts expect, we're forced back into quarantine by additional coronavirus waves, the oceanic waves slamming against our shores will best be met by storm preparations put in place in a less last-minute fashion than usual.
Ross adds, "Just as in years past, NOAA experts will stay ahead of developing hurricanes and tropical storms and provide the forecasts and warnings we depend on to stay safe."
Let's hope this, at least, can be counted on in this crazy year.
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