Women who stay at home to raise children abdicate responsibility to themselves and therefore to their children, says Nancy Hirschmann, a professor of political science and women's studies. "Responsibility to self, to others, and to community is not served by stay-at-home mothering or 'choice' feminism. Women receive the benefits of higher education and then turn their backs on the social resources invested in them in order to focus on raising one or two children, who often spend substantial portions of their day in school...As a result gender oppression is ignored."