Stingy, Unkind People Are More Generous by Giving Less
If Scrooge gave away just a few pennies, he would suffer a big loss of well-being; for Mother Teresa to suffer a comparable loss she would have to give until she were nearly penniless.
With tax day just behind us, my guess is that, when taken nationally, charities experience a sizable bump shortly before the April 15th deadline. Giving to charity is even framed as a strategy for reducing your taxable income by companies like TurboTax.
Does this make the act of giving any less charitable? Certainly some would argue yes. It's no longer doing the right thing if your motivation is selfish, they might say. Still, this seems a poor reason to remove charitable incentives from the US tax code.
But what if morality actually requires that stingy, unkind people do less for their fellow citizen? That's the hard-to-swallow proposition put forth by Theron Pummer at the University of Oxford's Practical Ethics page:
"If Scrooge gave away just a few pennies, let’s suppose he would suffer a big loss of well-being; let’s suppose that for Teresa to suffer a comparable loss she would have to give until she were herself nearly penniless."
Instead of measuring someone's intention or motivation, Pummer measures the amount of loss a person experiences when they act charitably. This contrasts sharply with the Widow's Mite, a morality lesson in which a poor woman's offering of her last pennies is worth more than a rich man's contribution of half his entire wealth.
If that is true, we might be thankful, but measured, in our praise of billionaires who commit a majority of their wealth to charity. But on the other hand, expecting everyone to be a martyr for their cause is too harsh. As Pulitzer Prize-winning reporter and Big Think expert Sheryl WuDunn explains, there are specific approaches to giving to charity that can make you feel good without compromising your motivation.
Read more at Ethics in the News.
Here's the science of black holes, from supermassive monsters to ones the size of ping-pong balls.
- There's more than one way to make a black hole, says NASA's Michelle Thaller. They're not always formed from dead stars. For example, there are teeny tiny black holes all around us, the result of high-energy cosmic rays slamming into our atmosphere with enough force to cram matter together so densely that no light can escape.
- CERN is trying to create artificial black holes right now, but don't worry, it's not dangerous. Scientists there are attempting to smash two particles together with such intensity that it creates a black hole that would live for just a millionth of a second.
- Thaller uses a brilliant analogy involving a rubber sheet, a marble, and an elephant to explain why different black holes have varying densities. Watch and learn!
- Bonus fact: If the Earth became a black hole, it would be crushed to the size of a ping-pong ball.
From time-traveling billiard balls to information-destroying black holes, the world's got plenty of puzzles that are hard to wrap your head around.
- While it's one of the best on Earth, the human brain has a lot of trouble accounting for certain problems.
- We've evolved to think of reality in a very specific way, but there are plenty of paradoxes out there to suggest that reality doesn't work quite the way we think it does.
- Considering these paradoxes is a great way to come to grips with how incomplete our understanding of the universe really is.
In a breakthrough for nuclear fusion research, scientists at China's Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) reactor have produced temperatures necessary for nuclear fusion on Earth.
- The EAST reactor was able to heat hydrogen to temperatures exceeding 100 million degrees Celsius.
- Nuclear fusion could someday provide the planet with a virtually limitless supply of clean energy.
- Still, scientists have many other obstacles to pass before fusion technology becomes a viable energy source.
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