Enduring Pop Psychology

Four movements that gained huge followings and have stood the test of time: est, primal therapy, Transcendental Meditation and lucid dreaming. Where are they now?

Now and then, a new psychology movement bursts onto the popular scene and shakes up the mental health establishment. Typically these efforts tickle the fringe of accepted science, buoyed by celebrities and alternative therapy enthusiasts — which is to say, they often settle in California. Some, like est or primal therapy, traffic in mental transformation. Others, like Transcendental Meditation, whisper of ancient wisdom. Still others, like lucid dreaming, have echoes of science fiction. While the extent of their legacies varies, these four movements have all stood the test of time. So where are they now?

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