Spectacular images and video of the Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption in Chile

I am beginning to think the volcanoes plan it this way, but what is up with two of the biggest eruptions of 2011 falling on the weekend? Definitely makes it more difficult for me to keep up with all the action, that is for sure.


Saturday we saw a large eruption from Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (top left) in central Chile - the first major eruption of the volcano in 51 years. The ash plume from the volcano was quite spectacular, soaring over the clouds and rapidly spreading eastward over Argentina to reach the Atlantic. Some towns near the volcano, including the resort town of Bariloche, saw some significant ash fall from the volcano as well and a state of emergency remains in place for the area. The effects of the ash (video) were seen in many parts of Chile and Argentina, so flight disruptions were also widespread due to the eruption. This ash is not only a hazard to air and water, but also could lead to lahars - and the Chilean government has evacuated some people near the volcano for just such a fear. Some of the latest reports suggest the activity at the volcano has waned significantly, but with any eruption this size, this could change rapidly. Right now, very little of the plume appears in the satellite images, suggesting the volcano is calmer. So far, thousands of people have been evacuated from the areas around the volcano.

The ash plume from the June 4, 2011 eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile. Click here to see a larger version.

The eruption itself occurred northeast of the vents that were active during the 1960 eruption - if you look at the geologic map of the volcanic complex, you might notice that little half-circles are marked northeast of the red area that demarcates the 1960 activity. These half-circles are partially buried craters of previous eruptions, suggesting that this is not an entirely new center of activity. This type of activity at Puyehue-Cordón Caulle (and a lot of the central Andes) is not atypical - large explosive eruptions from subsidiary vents on larger volcanoes are known at Quizapu (Chile) and Hauynaputina (Peru) (and likely more). If you're interested in the relationship between the 1960 eruption and the major Chilean earthquake of that same year, check out this article from the Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research. I'm sure that many people will be looking to see if there is any connection between this eruption of Puyehue-Cordon Caulle and the large Chilean earthquake of 2010

The plume from Puyehue-Cordón Caulle seen on June 4, 2011 from a flight from Puerto Montt to Santiago. Click here to see the original.

There is a bevy of amazing images and video of the eruption, not surprisingly. This great video of the eruption plume shows the billowing grey-tan ash roaring out of the vent. You can get a sense of the energy of the eruption by looking at the video and then watching the animated GIF of the ash plume starting and spreading over southern South America over the course of the weekend (along with it, lots of sulfur dioxide). POVI has put together a great array of images from the eruption showing the size of the plume from the eruption as well. As it seems for any eruption these days, people love images of volcanic eruptions and lightning - and Puyehue-Cordón  Caulle was no slouch in that. In this BBC collection, you can see some of the golf ball-sized pumice that fell in parts of Argentina near the volcano - again, showing just how powerful this eruption is (video).

{Special thanks, as usual, to all the Eruptions readers who provided images and links for this post.}

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Why the worst part about climate change isn't rising temperatures

The world's getting hotter, and it's getting more volatile. We need to start thinking about how climate change encourages conflict.

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Politics & Current Affairs
  • Climate change is usually discussed in terms of how it impacts the weather, but this fails to emphasize how climate change is a "threat multiplier."
  • As a threat multiplier, climate change makes already dangerous social and political situations even worse.
  • Not only do we have to work to minimize the impact of climate change on our environment, but we also have to deal with how it affects human issues today.

Human beings are great at responding to imminent and visible threats. Climate change, while dire, is almost entirely the opposite: it's slow, it's pervasive, it's vague, and it's invisible. Researchers and policymakers have been trying to package climate change in a way that conveys its severity. Usually, they do so by talking about its immediate effects: rising temperature, rising sea levels, and increasingly dangerous weather.

These things are bad, make no mistake about it. But the thing that makes climate change truly dire isn't that Cape Cod will be underwater next century, that polar bears will go extinct, or that we'll have to invent new categories for future hurricanes. It's the thousands of ancillary effects — the indirect pressure that climate change puts on every person on the planet.

How a drought in the Middle East contributed to extremism in Europe

(DANIEL LEAL-OLIVAS/AFP/Getty Images)

Nigel Farage in front of a billboard that leverages the immigration crisis to support Brexit.

Because climate change is too big for the mind to grasp, we'll have to use a case study to talk about this. The Syrian civil war is a horrific tangle of senseless violence, but there are some primary causes we can point to. There is the longstanding conflicts between different religious sects in that country. Additionally, the Arab Spring swept Syria up in a wave of resistance against authoritarian leaders in the Middle East — unfortunately, Syrian protests were brutally squashed by Bashar Al-Assad. These, and many other factors, contributed to the start of the Syrian civil war.

One of these other factors was drought. In fact, the drought in that region — it started in 2006 — has been described as the "worst long-term drought and most severe set of crop failures since agricultural civilization began in the Fertile Crescent many millennia ago." Because of this drought, many rural Syrians could no longer support themselves. Between 2006 and 2009, an estimated 1.5 million Syrians — many of them agricultural workers and farmers — moved into the country's major cities. With this sudden mixing of different social groups in a country where classes and religious sects were already at odds with one another, tensions rose, and the increased economic instability encouraged chaos. Again, the drought didn't cause the civil war — but it sure as hell helped it along.

The ensuing flood of refugees to Europe is already a well-known story. The immigration crisis was used as a talking point in the Brexit movement to encourage Britain to leave the EU. Authoritarian or extreme-right governments and political parties have sprung up in France, Italy, Greece, Hungary, Slovenia, and other European countries, all of which have capitalized on fears of the immigration crisis.

Why climate change is a "threat multiplier"

This is why both NATO and the Pentagon have labeled climate change as a "threat multiplier." On its own, climate change doesn't cause these issues — rather, it exacerbates underlying problems in societies around the world. Think of having a heated discussion inside a slowly heating-up car.

Climate change is often discussed in terms of its domino effect: for example, higher temperatures around the world melt the icecaps, releasing methane stored in the polar ice that contributes to the rise in temperature, which both reduces available land for agriculture due to drought and makes parts of the ocean uninhabitable for different animal species, wreaking havoc on the food chain, and ultimately making food more scarce.

Maybe we should start to consider climate change's domino effect in more human and political terms. That is, in terms of the dominoes of sociopolitical events spurred on by climate change and the missing resources it gobbles up.

What the future may hold

(NASA via Getty Images)

Increasingly severe weather events will make it more difficult for nations to avoid conflict.

Part of why this is difficult to see is because climate change does not affect all countries proportionally — at least, not in a direct sense. Germanwatch, a German NGO, releases a climate change index every year to analyze exactly how badly different countries have been affected by climate change. The top five most at-risk countries are Haiti, Zimbabwe, Fiji, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam. Notice that many of these places are islands, which are at the greatest risk for major storms and rising sea levels. Some island nations are even expected to literally disappear — the leaders of these nations are actively making plans to move their citizens to other countries.

But Germanwatch's climate change index is based on weather events. It does not account for the political and social instability that will likely result. The U.S. and many parts of Europe are relatively low on the index, but that is precisely why these countries will most likely need to deal with the human cost of climate change. Refugees won't go from the frying pan into the fire: they'll go to the closest, safest place available.

Many people's instinctive response to floods of immigrants is to simply make borders more restrictive. This makes sense — a nation's first duty is to its own citizens, after all. Unfortunately, people who support stronger immigration policies tend to have right-wing authoritarian tendencies. This isn't always the case, of course, but anecdotally, we can look at the governments in Europe that have stricter immigration policies. Hungary, for example, has extremely strict policies against Muslim immigrants. It's also rapidly turning into a dictatorship. The country has cracked down on media organizations and NGOs, eroded its judicial system's independence, illegalized homelessness, and banned gender studies courses.

Climate change and its sociopolitical effects, such as refugee migration, aren't some poorer country's problem. It's everyone's problem. Whether it's our food, our homes, or our rights, climate change will exact a toll on every nation on Earth. Stopping climate change, or at least reducing its impact, is vitally important. Equally important is contending with the multifaceted threats its going to throw our way.

Personal Growth

Design is all around us in a myriad of forms. From the screen interfaces on your phones and devices to the handles on your shower faucets. We often know instinctively what constitutes great design, there's an almost ephemeral quality to it. Great design offers comfort, ease of use and a feeling of being in the know and in control.

Bad design on the other hand hits us like an ill-shaped rock – hard to navigate websites, Rube Goldberg machines and a general sense of annoyance and confusion. Design is both a science and an art and everybody is affected by it in some way. Whether you're a designer or just appreciate design and want to know more, here are the 10 best books on design.

The Design of Everyday Things

In a clear and concise matter, Don Norman writes about the flaws that plague the design of everyday objects, which makes our lives more trouble than they need to be, more inconvenient and sometimes downright dangerous. This was a book written in the late 1980s, but is still relevant today, as it has been updated a few times.

The book isn't just an exposé of horrid design, but also a tale of how designers in all industries can become better apt to customers' and end-users' needs. It's a must read for any type of designer, as Norman goes into great detail about design methodologies, ideals and psychology. He has many thoughts about how if you can't figure something out, it's not always your fault but often the designer's. His philosophy of design is proper communication and usability, Norman states:

"Eliminate the term human error. Instead talk about communication and interaction. When people collaborate with one another the word error is never used to characterize another person's utterance."

About Face: The Essentials of Interaction

Let's face it, the majority of design today is within the digital field: software design, websites, applications and other mediums of online & digital expression. Alan Cooper & Co.'s About Face is the premier book for interaction design. It covers project processes, goal directed design and everything you could ever need to know about user feedback, controls and comprehensive overview of interaction.

The book is sprawling and deep dives into just about any common UI widget in existence. It's considered a pillar of learning material for UI/UX designers. While some may get turned off by its length and pedantic explanations, it also serves as an excellent reference book for UX designers.

A Designer's Art 

Paul Rand's book was published in 1985 and was one of the first of its kind. The renowned graphic designer wanted to create a book that would explain the art of a growing discipline, rather than just show it visually. The book is packed with personal views on design, peppered with his expansive portfolio and also cites a number of renowned academics.

Rand was another designer who felt that communication is absolutely key when it comes to design. He states:

"Graphic design which evokes the symmetria of Vitruvius, the dynamic symmetry of Hambidge, the asymmetry of Mondrian; which is a good gestalt, generated by intuition or by computer, by invention or by a system of coordinates is not good design if it does not communicate."

Beauty and symmetrical supremacy doesn't mean a whole lot if it can't communicate its intended message. For students of design, teachers and professionals, this is a book that is great for explaining and expressing the creative communication of ideals.

A Product Guide to UX Design

Business and design often coalesce together in an alliance of production. A professional designer is going to be required to interact with other aspects of running a business. Ensuring that a user interaction is running smoothly and the design assets are glowing in perfect fidelity and union with the product are all well and good and the meat of a UX designer's job; but working this into an overall business perspective is also an important skill to have.

This book by Russ Unger and Carolyn Chandler covers a breadth of topics for those who might have minimal experience in UX design, but are interested in applying their newfound skills in a business setting.

Elements of User Experience

Jesse James Garrett exposes in a very clear way the essence of user experience for the web. He breaks down the ux for the web into five different planes going deep into the vocabulary and strategy for designing better experiences for our digital world.

He sets out some simple rules for consistency and great design:


"Presenting a style on your Web site that's inconsistent with your style in other media doesn't just affect the audience's impression of that product; it affects their impression of your company as a whole. People respond positively to companies with clearly defined identities. Inconsistent visual styles undermine the clarity of your corporate image and leave the audience with the impression that this is a company that hasn't quite figured out who it is."

Geometry of Design: Studies in Proportion and Composition

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Kimberly Elam's Geometry of Design brings out the mathematical guns in analyzing and postulating about the inherent symmetrical nature of great design. She explores the relationships between visual representations and their foundations in geometry. It's a great book that focuses on the golden ratio and root rectangles.

Elam utilizes overlays and grids in order to identify designs in different works of design and art. She looks at the underlying geometric structures in architecture, compositions and even furniture. The author has a great ability to distill these high level math concepts and distill them in an understandable and relatable way with insight into the design process.

Universal Principles of Design 

This landmark book is the ultimate reference and cross-disciplinary design book. With richly illustrated and fantastic design elements, this book clearly displays a wide range of visual and design concepts. From anthropomorphic form to the Golden ratio, these over 100 design concepts are well-defined and thought out for readers to expand their principal knowledge.

It's a great book for skimming and also using a reference. There's also a few mind-benders in there as well, for example:

"The 80/20 rule asserts that approximately 80 percent of the effects generated by any large system are caused by 20 percent of the variables in that system."

Apply this same concept to an app and you'll find that this is also true. These principles are a great starting off point to delve deeper into the fundamentals of design in all types of mediums.

Don’t make me Think! 

Written and first published in 2000, Steve Krug's Don't Make Me Think has served as a bible for a countless number of web designers and businesspeople. With an updated version for mobile usability, Krug presents his ideas in an understandable way for web designers to learn more about navigation and information design.

It's an excellent introduction to creating websites with some just plain common sense advice. As the title states, a website should be first and foremost functional and something people barely need to think about when using it.

The Visual Display of Quantitative Information

This classic book on statistics, graphs, charts and tables puts together both theory and practice in the visualization of data graphics. The text has some 250 plus of some the best and worst graphics for review. The book takes into account a number of highly sophisticated graphical design aspects, including:

  • High resolution displays
  • Editing graphics
  • Data-ink ratio
  • Time Series
  • Relational graphics
  • Data maps
  • Design variations versus data variations
  • & more!

Many people don't understand the importance of graphical competence as it requires a number of skills, both statistical and even artistic. Edward R. Tufte does a great job pointing out that while graphical representation is usually lacking in media publications, journals and general reading materials – graphical representation and comprehensive is a necessary in many fields for experts.

The One Device: the Secret History of the iPhone

While this book doesn't necessarily tout the fundamentals of design, it's an exciting historical view of what some people consider to be one of the greatest designed devices within the past few decades. There is no doubt that the iPhone has revolutionized the world, smartphone industry and changed our modern way of life. A mastery of design and functionality, the iPhone is the holy grail of devices.

Packed within this slab of computational glass is a story that needed to be told. Brian Merchant's book does just that. The history of the phone, electronics, early start of the secretive project within the Apple headquarters – all of this tells a tale of an exceptionally well-designed product.

DIY electrical brain stimulation is a worrying new trend

There's still a lot even doctors don't know about it.

(Dierk Schaefer/Flickr)
Surprising Science
  • Scientists are experimenting with applying electrical current to brains as a potential therapy and enhancement.
  • A wave of DIY brain-shocking is worrying experts.
  • Would you ever zap your own brain to see what happens? DIY and direct-to-consumer devices are available, but researchers have called for an open dialog with the DIY community about the risks.
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