Why Words Won't—and Can't—Sit Still... Like... Literally...
Words don't work like we were taught. That old neat nouns and verbs type tale hides the weird truth. Language is a mix of flux and fixed but flexible elements that relies on "unknown knowns."
1. We all need them, but some, like me, love words, and the mind feast they bring. But while words shape our lives, few grasp the weird way they work.
2. Words “won't—and can't—sit still (like, literally),” declares John McWhorter (Words On The Move).
3. You may not like “literally” being used nonliterally, but Hume used it like that in 1806.
4. And lots of language is nonliteral—idioms, metaphors, etc. “Literal” now has idiom-like nonliteralness.
7. Pause to ponder… that we don’t speak spaces (speech’s continuous undelimited stream hampers machines). Ancient Greek, written without spaces, is closer to speech.
8. And speech must do much more than text (facing contexts with interpersonal dynamics).
10. MPM’s are part of handling F.A.C.E. (Factuality marking, Acknowledging states of mind of others, Counter-expectation signaling, Emotional easing).
12. A “like” shift is how adverbs got their “-ly” suffix, a contraction of “-like” (“like” first meant body).
14. Shifts can be so extreme that words can become their opposites. But “contronyms” aren’t harmful e.g., to “dust” can mean removing or adding particles, but nobody dusts floors with sprinkling sugar.
15. Contrary to certain philosophical (overlogical) preferences, languages work fine despite many contradictory elements. Their inconsistencies don’t confuse—context let’s us manage multiple meanings easily. As Ray Jackendoff notes, “enriched composition” adds unspoken clarifications.
16. Languages leverage “unknown knowns” (Rumsfeld’s omitted 4th). Few speakers using “like” as an MPM know that they know how to. Native grammar is mostly a tacitly absorbed tangle of rules and exceptions, that still works wonderfully.
17. Morality works partly like grammar. Both evolved for social survival. We’re born into both unchosen. In both we instinctively, unconsciously, feel what’s “right” (System 1 + “moral dumbfounding”).
18. Morality’s behavioral rules and language’s grammar rules are in a sense unchoosable. They’re tacit and collective, hence change slowly, and communally, not individually, often intergenerationally.
19. McWhorter says language sticklers (word-pedant police) confuse logic with fashion. Wouldn’t admonishing kids for not dressing like their grandparents be bizarre?
20. Jackendoff says all conscious thinking involves speech (self-talking) and System 2 = System 1 + language.
Illustration by Julia Suits, author of The Extraordinary Catalog of Peculiar Inventions, and The New Yorker cartoonist.
To create wiser adults, add empathy to the school curriculum.
- Stories are at the heart of learning, writes Cleary Vaughan-Lee, Executive Director for the Global Oneness Project. They have always challenged us to think beyond ourselves, expanding our experience and revealing deep truths.
- Vaughan-Lee explains 6 ways that storytelling can foster empathy and deliver powerful learning experiences.
- Global Oneness Project is a free library of stories—containing short documentaries, photo essays, and essays—that each contain a companion lesson plan and learning activities for students so they can expand their experience of the world.
This is what the world will look like, 250 million years from now
To us humans, the shape and location of oceans and continents seems fixed. But that's only because our lives are so short.
As a doctor, I am reminded every day of the fragility of the human body, how closely mortality lurks just around the corner.
Tyson dives into the search for alien life, dark matter, and the physics of football.
- Astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson joins us to talk about one of our favorite subjects: space.
- In the three-chaptered video, Tyson speaks about the search for alien life inside and outside of the Goldilocks Zone, why the term "dark matter" should really be called "dark gravity," and how the rotation of the Earth may have been the deciding factor in a football game.
- These fascinating space facts, as well as others shared in Tyson's books, make it easier for everyone to grasp complex ideas that are literally out of this world.
SpaceX's momentous Crew Dragon launch is a sign of things to come for the space industry, and humanity's future.