U.K. Royal Mint honors Stephen Hawking on new 50p coin
The coin depicts a black hole and one of the late physicist's most important formulas.
- Stephen Hawking, cosmologist, theoretical physicist and popular science educator, died on March 14, 2018.
- The Royal Mint is celebrating his work and life with a collector's coin that's selling for 10 pounds.
- Hawking's younger son said he imagined his dad reacting to the news with "one of his huge, wide smiles."
The U.K. Royal Mint has issued a 50-pence coin commemorating the late physicist Stephen Hawking, who died nearly one year ago at age 76.
The collector's coin, which is selling online for $10 pounds, depicts Stephen Hawking's name surrounded by lines that form concentric circles representing a black hole. Written above his name on the coin is the Bekenstein-Hawking formula, which describes black-hole entropy, and shows that the surface area of a black hole expands as it consumes more matter. It also supports the idea that black holes aren't completely black.
"This is such a lovely way to commemorate him and his legacy," said Lucy Hawking, Stephen Hawking's daughter known for her work as a children's novelist and science educator. "It's a 2D surface that seems to have a 3D image on it. It's as though you could fall into the black hole."
Coin designer Edwina Ellis said she "wanted to fit a big black hole on the tiny coin and wish he was still here chortling at the thought."
"The initial inspiration was actually Stephen Hawking's description of black holes," Ellis said. "It was only afterwards I realize I hadn't used anybody else's graphic imagery because he gave it to me."
It's not the first time the Royal Mint has commemorated scientists on U.K. currency: Sir Isaac Newton appears on a 50-pence coin and Charles Darwin can be found on a 2-pound coin. Hawking's younger son Tim said he thinks his dad would've been happy to have been celebrated in such a way.
"He would've been thrilled to know that there was a coin commemorating him and his work," said Tim Hawking, Stephen's younger son. "I think I have a very clear sense of him with one of his huge, wide smiles."
After spending decades working on what he called "the big question: Where did the universe come from?", Hawking is remembered not only for his numerous scientific contributions to cosmology, general relativity and quantum gravity, but also for his warm and ever-curious personality the world came to know through his role as a popular science educator.
Hawking spoke to Big Think years ago about the future of humanity.
"I'm an optimist. If we can avoid disaster for the next two centuries, our species should be safe, as we spread into space."
To Hawking, this will require not falling prey to our worst tendencies.
"Our genetic code still carries the selfish and aggressive instincts that were of survival advantage in the past. It will be difficult enough to avoid disaster in the next hundred years, let alone the next thousand or million. Our only chance of long-term survival, is not to remain inward-looking on planet Earth, but to spread out into space. We have made remarkable progress in the last hundred years. But if we want to continue beyond the next hundred years, our future is in space."
Abandon Earth—or face extinction
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
Do you have a magnetic compass in your head?
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