Should France rebuild Notre Dame exactly as it was?
The lack of tall, strong oak trees poses something of a problem for the restoration effort.
- A fire destroyed Notre Dame's 115-foot roof on April 15, immediately sparking a debate on how France should restore the cathedral.
- Some argue that it should be rebuilt to its original specifications, while others say alternate materials would be a better options.
- The debate calls to mind the philosophical thought experiment known as "The Ship of Theseus."
French President Emmanuel Macron has promised that France will rebuild Notre Dame, whose roof caught fire on April 15, within five years. However, some experts say it could take longer, even decades. Either way, it's a virtual certainty that the 850-year-old cathedral will be restored in time. The question is how, and with what materials?
Some argue the roof should be restored as closely as possible to its original state.
"We'll use modern methods, but it should be done by the books," Mechtild Rössler, the director of the Unesco World Heritage Center, told Business Insider.
However, one major problem is that France probably doesn't have enough tall oak trees to restore the roof as it was. Even in the 13th century, it wasn't exactly easy to find the 3,000 tall oak trees, some of which were up to 400 years old. French forests have only dwindled since then.
However, the insurance firm Groupama has pledged 1,300 oak trees, which are about 100 years old, from forests it owns in Normandy. No matter, though.
"The ability to find around 3,000 more big, strong trees in the next two decades is going to be tricky," medieval historian Dr. Emily Guerry told CBS News, adding that the Baltic might have enough suitable oak trees.
Work Takes Place On Notre Dame Cathedral After Devastating Fire. Photo credit: by Chesnot / Getty Images
But even this might upset some of the purists who say the new roof should be made from oak from the forests of Normandy, like the original construction. To others, rebuilding the roof with another material — perhaps iron — makes more sense, consider it'd decrease the chances of the roof catching fire again in the future.
"I doubt they'll use wood," Carolyn Malone, a professor of art history and gothic architecture at the University of Southern California, told Business Insider.
Still another concern is restoration expertise.
"We need carpenters with the skill set to spot the right trees, treat them properly, and then erect them into this beautiful fan-like fabric," Guerry told CBS News. "These skills aren't really common in the modern age, but I'm sure there are really talented people out there that will be hurrying to do this job for Paris."
At the heart of the restoration debate is a clash between the "ancients and moderns," as art historian Dr. Jean-Michel Leniaud described to The Art Newspaper. Those in the latter camp might be more inclined to pursue a pragmatic restoration approach, in which it wouldn't be considered a "betrayal" of French culture to rebuild the roof with a visibly modern touch.
The Ship of Theseus
The debate calls to mind the Ship of Theseus philosophical thought experiment, part of which asks:
"... suppose that the famous ship sailed by the hero Theseus in a great battle has been kept in a harbour as a museum piece. As the years go by some of the wooden parts begin to rot and are replaced by new ones. After a century or so, all of the parts have been replaced. Is the 'restored' ship still the same object as the original?"
If the answer is no, does that mean France should be any less concerned with rebuilding the cathedral to its exact original specifications? If the answer is no, should the lovers of Notre Dame take this tragedy as an opportunity to imbue a bit of modernity to the iconic cathedral, both in terms of materials and design?
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Is this proof of a dramatic shift?
- Map details dramatic shift from CNN to Fox News over 10-year period
- Does it show the triumph of "fake news" — or, rather, its defeat?
- A closer look at the map's legend allows for more complex analyses
Dramatic and misleading
Image: Reddit / SICResearch
The situation today: CNN pushed back to the edges of the country.
Over the course of no more than a decade, America has radically switched favorites when it comes to cable news networks. As this sequence of maps showing TMAs (Television Market Areas) suggests, CNN is out, Fox News is in.
The maps are certainly dramatic, but also a bit misleading. They nevertheless provide some insight into the state of journalism and the public's attitudes toward the press in the US.
Let's zoom in:
- It's 2008, on the eve of the Obama Era. CNN (blue) dominates the cable news landscape across America. Fox News (red) is an upstart (°1996) with a few regional bastions in the South.
- By 2010, Fox News has broken out of its southern heartland, colonizing markets in the Midwest and the Northwest — and even northern Maine and southern Alaska.
- Two years later, Fox News has lost those two outliers, but has filled up in the middle: it now boasts two large, contiguous blocks in the southeast and northwest, almost touching.
- In 2014, Fox News seems past its prime. The northwestern block has shrunk, the southeastern one has fragmented.
- Energised by Trump's 2016 presidential campaign, Fox News is back with a vengeance. Not only have Maine and Alaska gone from entirely blue to entirely red, so has most of the rest of the U.S. Fox News has plugged the Nebraska Gap: it's no longer possible to walk from coast to coast across CNN territory.
- By 2018, the fortunes from a decade earlier have almost reversed. Fox News rules the roost. CNN clings on to the Pacific Coast, New Mexico, Minnesota and parts of the Northeast — plus a smattering of metropolitan areas in the South and Midwest.
Image source: Reddit / SICResearch
This sequence of maps, showing America turning from blue to red, elicited strong reactions on the Reddit forum where it was published last week. For some, the takeover by Fox News illustrates the demise of all that's good and fair about news journalism. Among the comments?
- "The end is near."
- "The idiocracy grows."
- "(It's) like a spreading disease."
- "One of the more frightening maps I've seen."
- "LOL that's what happens when you're fake news!"
- "CNN went down the toilet on quality."
- "A Minecraft YouTuber could beat CNN's numbers."
- "CNN has become more like a high-school production of a news show."
Not a few find fault with both channels, even if not always to the same degree:
- "That anybody considers either of those networks good news sources is troubling."
- "Both leave you understanding less rather than more."
- "This is what happens when you spout bullsh-- for two years straight. People find an alternative — even if it's just different bullsh--."
- "CNN is sh-- but it's nowhere close to the outright bullsh-- and baseless propaganda Fox News spews."
"Old people learning to Google"
Image: Google Trends
CNN vs. Fox News search terms (200!-2018)
But what do the maps actually show? Created by SICResearch, they do show a huge evolution, but not of both cable news networks' audience size (i.e. Nielsen ratings). The dramatic shift is one in Google search trends. In other words, it shows how often people type in "CNN" or "Fox News" when surfing the web. And that does not necessarily reflect the relative popularity of both networks. As some commenters suggest:
- "I can't remember the last time that I've searched for a news channel on Google. Is it really that difficult for people to type 'cnn.com'?"
- "More than anything else, these maps show smart phone proliferation (among older people) more than anything else."
- "This is a map of how old people and rural areas have learned to use Google in the last decade."
- "This is basically a map of people who don't understand how the internet works, and it's no surprise that it leans conservative."
A visual image as strong as this map sequence looks designed to elicit a vehement response — and its lack of context offers viewers little new information to challenge their preconceptions. Like the news itself, cartography pretends to be objective, but always has an agenda of its own, even if just by the selection of its topics.
The trick is not to despair of maps (or news) but to get a good sense of the parameters that are in play. And, as is often the case (with both maps and news), what's left out is at least as significant as what's actually shown.
One important point: while Fox News is the sole major purveyor of news and opinion with a conservative/right-wing slant, CNN has more competition in the center/left part of the spectrum, notably from MSNBC.
Another: the average age of cable news viewers — whether they watch CNN or Fox News — is in the mid-60s. As a result of a shift in generational habits, TV viewing is down across the board. Younger people are more comfortable with a "cafeteria" approach to their news menu, selecting alternative and online sources for their information.
It should also be noted, however, that Fox News, according to Harvard's Nieman Lab, dominates Facebook when it comes to engagement among news outlets.
CNN, Fox and MSNBC
Image: Google Trends
CNN vs. Fox (without the 'News'; may include searches for actual foxes). See MSNBC (in yellow) for comparison
For the record, here are the Nielsen ratings for average daily viewer total for the three main cable news networks, for 2018 (compared to 2017):
- Fox News: 1,425,000 (-5%)
- MSNBC: 994,000 (+12%)
- CNN: 706,000 (-9%)
And according to this recent overview, the top 50 of the most popular websites in the U.S. includes cnn.com in 28th place, and foxnews.com in... 27th place.The top 5, in descending order, consists of google.com, youtube.com, facebook.com, amazon.com and yahoo.com — the latter being the highest-placed website in the News and Media category.
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