Get smarter, faster. Subscribe to our daily newsletter.
Who Made Beethoven Mad Enough to Un-Dedicate a Symphony?
If a politician’s broken promises ever broke your heart, Beethoven knew how you feel.
When Ludwig van Beethoven’s Third Symphony premiered in Vienna on April 7, 1805, the enthralled audience was oblivious to the tortured history behind the music. Famous for his furious temper, Beethoven belonged to the Romantic generation of the early 19th century of Sturm und Drang (German for “storm and stress”), an era of political and artistic upheaval. One man in particular, however, stressed Beethoven enough in those stormy times to make him strike out the dedication he had made for that Third Symphony, literally tearing a hole in the manuscript (shown above). If a politician’s broken promises ever broke your heart, you’ll know how Beethoven felt when he was mad enough to un-dedicate a symphony.
By 1804, when Beethoven began writing his Third Symphony, he was already a leading figure in the cutting-edge Romantic school of classical music. We’re so attuned to Beethoven’s now-familiar music today that it’s impossible for us to appreciate just how revolutionary his contemporaries would have considered him. As Jan Swafford’s recent biography Beethoven: Anguish and Triumph argued (and I reviewed here), Beethoven was “a radical evolutionary” who viewed his music as just another piece of the quickly building puzzle of an evolving Europe still trembling from the shake-up of the French Revolution.
Like so many others during the time, Beethoven followed the career of Napoleon Bonaparte (shown above) with great interest. As kings and queens fell, Napoleon rose from humble beginnings to lead France into a future built on democracy and meritocracy rather than royalty and bloodlines. Recognizing a figure as charismatic as himself, Beethoven dedicated his next symphony to Bonaparte. Even later, when financial concerns forced Beethoven to officially re-dedicate the Third Symphony to paying patron Prince Joseph Franz Maximilian Lobkowitz, Beethoven titled the work “Buonaparte.” Money talked, but not loudly enough for Beethoven to disconnect the music from the man of the moment.
Only one thing could break Beethoven’s infatuation with Napoleon—Napoleon becoming the thing he claimed he would end. When Beethoven learned that his hero had crowned himself Emperor (and Josephine Empress; as shown above), he reportedly raged, “So he is no more than a common mortal! Now, too, he will tread under foot all the rights of Man, indulge only his ambition; now he will think himself superior to all men, become a tyrant!” Beethoven took the manuscript to the Third Symphony and violently scratched out the remaining references to Bonaparte hard enough to rip through the paper (image shown at top of post). The hole in the page matched the hole in Beethoven’s idealistic heart.
From that moment, the “Buonaparte” Symphony became the “Eroica” Symphony, dedicated to “heroic” men and women everywhere. Sadly, the symphony’s been associated most often with the loss of heroic figures. When President John F. Kennedy was assassinated in 1963, Boston Symphony Orchestra music director Erich Leinsdorf announced the news to the stunned concert audience before leading the orchestra in the Third Symphony’s second movement, a funeral march (video above). Promises may be made to be broken, but political promises broken break hearts even harder. Donald Trump recently claimed he could shoot someone and not lose voters, which might be the 21st century America equivalent of crowning yourself king. Whatever your ideals (if you're a "Trump-eter" or "Feel the Bern"), if you’ve ever pinned your hopes on a hero only to have them tumble from the pedestal, play that second movement of Beethoven’s Third Symphony (video below) and know you’re not the first (or the last).
What is human dignity? Here's a primer, told through 200 years of great essays, lectures, and novels.
- Human dignity means that each of our lives have an unimpeachable value simply because we are human, and therefore we are deserving of a baseline level of respect.
- That baseline requires more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose.
- We look at incredible writings from the last 200 years that illustrate the push for human dignity in regards to slavery, equality, communism, free speech and education.
The inherent worth of all human beings<p>Human dignity is the inherent worth of each individual human being. Recognizing human dignity means respecting human beings' special value—value that sets us apart from other animals; value that is intrinsic and cannot be lost.</p> <p>Liberalism—the broad political philosophy that organizes society around liberty, justice, and equality—is rooted in the idea of human dignity. Liberalism assumes each of our lives, plans, and preferences have some unimpeachable value, not because of any objective evaluation or contribution to a greater good, but simply because they belong to a human being. We are human, and therefore deserving of a baseline level of respect. </p> <p>Because so many of us take human dignity for granted—just a fact of our humanness—it's usually only when someone's dignity is ignored or violated that we feel compelled to talk about it. </p> <p>But human dignity means more than the absence of violence, discrimination, and authoritarianism. It means giving individuals the freedom to pursue their own happiness and purpose—a freedom that can be hampered by restrictive social institutions or the tyranny of the majority. The liberal ideal of the good society is not just peaceful but also pluralistic: It is a society in which we respect others' right to think and live differently than we do.</p>
From the 19th century to today<p>With <a href="https://books.google.com/ngrams/graph?year_start=1800&year_end=2019&content=human+dignity&corpus=26&smoothing=3&direct_url=t1%3B%2Chuman%20dignity%3B%2Cc0" target="_blank" rel="noopener noreferrer">Google Books Ngram Viewer</a>, we can chart mentions of human dignity from 1800-2019.</p><img type="lazy-image" data-runner-src="https://assets.rebelmouse.io/eyJhbGciOiJIUzI1NiIsInR5cCI6IkpXVCJ9.eyJpbWFnZSI6Imh0dHBzOi8vYXNzZXRzLnJibC5tcy8yNDg0ODU0My9vcmlnaW4ucG5nIiwiZXhwaXJlc19hdCI6MTY1MTUwMzE4MX0.bu0D_0uQuyNLyJjfRESNhu7twkJ5nxu8pQtfa1w3hZs/img.png?width=980" id="7ef38" class="rm-shortcode" data-rm-shortcode-id="9974c7bef3812fcb36858f325889e3c6" data-rm-shortcode-name="rebelmouse-image" />
American novelist, writer, playwright, poet, essayist and civil rights activist James Baldwin at his home in Saint-Paul-de-Vence, southern France, on November 6, 1979.
Credit: Ralph Gatti/AFP via Getty Images
The future of dignity<p>Around the world, people are still working toward the full and equal recognition of human dignity. Every year, new speeches and writings help us understand what dignity is—not only what it looks like when dignity is violated but also what it looks like when dignity is honored. In his posthumous essay, Congressman Lewis wrote, "When historians pick up their pens to write the story of the 21st century, let them say that it was your generation who laid down the heavy burdens of hate at last and that peace finally triumphed over violence, aggression and war."</p> <p>The more we talk about human dignity, the better we understand it. And the sooner we can make progress toward a shared vision of peace, freedom, and mutual respect for all. </p>
With just a few strategical tweaks, the Nazis could have won one of World War II's most decisive battles.
- The Battle of Britain is widely recognized as one of the most significant battles that occurred during World War II. It marked the first major victory of the Allied forces and shifted the tide of the war.
- Historians, however, have long debated the deciding factor in the British victory and German defeat.
- A new mathematical model took into account numerous alternative tactics that the German's could have made and found that just two tweaks stood between them and victory over Britain.
Two strategic blunders<p>Now, historians and mathematicians from York St. John University have collaborated to produce <a href="http://www-users.york.ac.uk/~nm15/bootstrapBoB%20AAMS.docx" target="_blank">a statistical model (docx download)</a> capable of calculating what the likely outcomes of the Battle of Britain would have been had the circumstances been different. </p><p>Would the German war effort have fared better had they not bombed Britain at all? What if Hitler had begun his bombing campaign earlier, even by just a few weeks? What if they had focused their targets on RAF airfields for the entire course of the battle? Using a statistical technique called weighted bootstrapping, the researchers studied these and other alternatives.</p><p>"The weighted bootstrap technique allowed us to model alternative campaigns in which the Luftwaffe prolongs or contracts the different phases of the battle and varies its targets," said co-author Dr. Jaime Wood in a <a href="https://www.york.ac.uk/news-and-events/news/2020/research/mathematicians-battle-britain-what-if-scenarios/" target="_blank">statement</a>. Based on the different strategic decisions that the German forces could have made, the researchers' model enabled them to predict the likelihood that the events of a given day of fighting would or would not occur.</p><p>"The Luftwaffe would only have been able to make the necessary bases in France available to launch an air attack on Britain in June at the earliest, so our alternative campaign brings forward the air campaign by three weeks," continued Wood. "We tested the impact of this and the other counterfactuals by varying the probabilities with which we choose individual days."</p><p>Ultimately, two strategic tweaks shifted the odds significantly towards the Germans' favor. Had the German forces started their campaign earlier in the year and had they consistently targeted RAF airfields, an Allied victory would have been extremely unlikely.</p><p>Say the odds of a British victory in the real-world Battle of Britain stood at 50-50 (there's no real way of knowing what the actual odds are, so we'll just have to select an arbitrary figure). If this were the case, changing the start date of the campaign and focusing only on airfields would have reduced British chances at victory to just 10 percent. Even if a British victory stood at 98 percent, these changes would have cut them down to just 34 percent.</p>
A tool for understanding history<p>This technique, said co-author Niall Mackay, "demonstrates just how finely-balanced the outcomes of some of the biggest moments of history were. Even when we use the actual days' events of the battle, make a small change of timing or emphasis to the arrangement of those days and things might have turned out very differently."</p><p>The researchers also claimed that their technique could be applied to other uncertain historical events. "Weighted bootstrapping can provide a natural and intuitive tool for historians to investigate unrealized possibilities, informing historical controversies and debates," said Mackay.</p><p>Using this technique, researchers can evaluate other what-ifs and gain insight into how differently influential events could have turned out if only the slightest things had changed. For now, at least, we can all be thankful that Hitler underestimated Britain's grit.</p>
A new study shows our planet is much closer to the supermassive black hole at the galaxy's center than previously estimated.
Arrows on this map show position and velocity data for the 224 objects utilized to model the Milky Way Galaxy. The solid black lines point to the positions of the spiral arms of the Galaxy. Colors reflect groups of objects that are part of the same arm, while the background is a simulation image.
Apple sold its first iPod in 2001, and six years later it introduced the iPhone, which ushered in a new era of personal technology.