School Assignments: American Illustration at the Delaware Art Museum
We tend to think of work done on assignment as being somehow cheaper than work springing entirely from the mind of the artist. Art on demand never strikes us as anything but commercial. If we allow that prejudice to prevent us from enjoying shows such as the Delaware Art Museum’s On Assignment: American Illustration, 1850—1950, the loss is entirely ours. Howard Pyle and his school of followers set a gold standard for illustration that turned mundane literature into sublime images. In our photography-dominated periodicals of today, Pyle and his people seem to belong not just to a different time, but to a different planet.
Pyle opened the Howard Pyle School of Illustration Art in 1900 after teaching at Drexel University for several years. Located in Brandywine, Pennsylvania, Pyle’s school came to be known as the Brandywine School. N.C. Wyeth not only came to study with Pyle, but also brought his family along, forging the first links in the great generational chain of Wyeth artistry continued by Andrew Wyeth and Jamie Wyeth.
First Pyle and, later, his students attracted the attention of major publishing houses throughout the United States looking for artists to illustrate stories in their publications. With an attentive but not slavish eye for detail and a penchant for portraying psychologically believable characters, Pyle and his students often created more interesting stories through their pictures than the authors did in words. Works such as Pyle’s He lost his hold and fell, taking me with him (pictured), which originally accompanied a Morgan Robertson story called “The Grain Ship” in the March 1909 issue of Harper’s Monthly Magazine, have outlived the stories that spawned them. History has taken the assignments given to these great illustrators and reassigned their importance from the second to the first tier.
Perhaps another obstacle to appreciating these illustrations is that the world of short fiction periodicals has gone the way of the 8-track player. Modern Americans just don’t read fiction in the way or to the degree that people at the turn of the twentieth century did. And when they do, publishers usually pair photography with the text. Even when that photography aspires to the artistic, it usually falls short of the imaginative power that Pyle promoted. The Delaware Art Museum’s vast collection of illustrations from American books and magazines of the mid-nineteenth to mid-twentieth centuries makes them the ideal location for a retrospective such as this. Part of me wants to dig up the stories that inspired these images, but a bigger and perhaps wiser part of me realizes that they could never live up to the vision of these “assigned” artists who schooled those authors in how to tell a story that would truly outlive them.
[Image: He lost his hold and fell, taking me with him, 1909, from “The Grain Ship, by Morgan Robertson, in Harper’s Monthly Magazine, March 1909. Howard Pyle (1853-1911). Oil on canvas, 27 1/2 x 17 7/8 inches. Museum Purchase, 1912.]
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It's one of the most consistent patterns in the unviverse. What causes it?
- Spinning discs are everywhere – just look at our solar system, the rings of Saturn, and all the spiral galaxies in the universe.
- Spinning discs are the result of two things: The force of gravity and a phenomenon in physics called the conservation of angular momentum.
- Gravity brings matter together; the closer the matter gets, the more it accelerates – much like an ice skater who spins faster and faster the closer their arms get to their body. Then, this spinning cloud collapses due to up and down and diagonal collisions that cancel each other out until the only motion they have in common is the spin – and voila: A flat disc.
It turns out, that tattoo ink can travel throughout your body and settle in lymph nodes.
In the slightly macabre experiment to find out where tattoo ink travels to in the body, French and German researchers recently used synchrotron X-ray fluorescence in four "inked" human cadavers — as well as one without. The results of their 2017 study? Some of the tattoo ink apparently settled in lymph nodes.
Image from the study.
As the authors explain in the study — they hail from Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich, the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, and the German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment — it would have been unethical to test this on live animals since those creatures would not be able to give permission to be tattooed.
Because of the prevalence of tattoos these days, the researchers wanted to find out if the ink could be harmful in some way.
"The increasing prevalence of tattoos provoked safety concerns with respect to particle distribution and effects inside the human body," they write.
It works like this: Since lymph nodes filter lymph, which is the fluid that carries white blood cells throughout the body in an effort to fight infections that are encountered, that is where some of the ink particles collect.
Image by authors of the study.
Titanium dioxide appears to be the thing that travels. It's a white tattoo ink pigment that's mixed with other colors all the time to control shades.
The study's authors will keep working on this in the meantime.
“In future experiments we will also look into the pigment and heavy metal burden of other, more distant internal organs and tissues in order to track any possible bio-distribution of tattoo ink ingredients throughout the body. The outcome of these investigations not only will be helpful in the assessment of the health risks associated with tattooing but also in the judgment of other exposures such as, e.g., the entrance of TiO2 nanoparticles present in cosmetics at the site of damaged skin."
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