from the world's big
Dr. Robert Rubino, founder of the Rubino OB/GYN Group, earned a BA in biology from Rutgers University and an MD from UMDNJ’s New Jersey Medical School in Newark, NJ. He completed a residency in obstetrics and gynecology at the UMDNJ University Hospital and now serves as Clinical Assistant Professor at that school’s Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Dr. Rubino’s interest in highly skilled, office-based procedures that improve the lives of women has been a driving force for the practice. Under his direction, the Rubino OB/GYN Group has become known as the premier OB/GYN practice in North Central New Jersey for advanced out-patient procedures such as the Essure® sterilization procedure, Her Option® in-office cryoablation therapy, and the PapSure test.
Question: What’s the next frontier in women’s cancers?
Robert Rubino: I think any gynecologist will tell you that it’s the ovary, ovarian cancer. We’re kind of at a loss really. The only thing we have to rely on is our patient symptoms and being vigilant in our annual exams. There’s no real good test out there. CA-125, which is a blood test, which there’s an e-mail going around for years now that it’s a great cancer screener, it’s almost like a PSA test for women and the same as the PSA is for men and it really hasn’t shown to be that. In fact, there’s a lot of false positives to it so you end up kind of chasing a lot of lab results and coming up with nothing and then creating a lot of anxiety for patients. So we really don’t have anything that we can offer as good screening so basically just having a high vigilance is all we can offer right now. But I think being on the birth control pill is the best thing you could do as far as prevention over the course of two years.
Question: How will genomics revolutionize the way we treat cancer in women?
Robert Rubino: Well, I think it will help, you know, in counseling our patients regarding diseases they might anticipate when they have children. I think like any technology it’s always gonna be far ahead of our ability to deal with it, you know, as anything, nuclear power, what have you. We always seem to be able to do stuff before we really know how to ethically and morally deal with it. So I think the biggest play is gonna be on predicting cancers in women with the BRCA gene which we have already for the breast. My hope is that we’ll see that, you know, for the ovary. That’s probably something that’s not as far down the road as we think right now.
Question: What makes ovarian cancer such a stealthy killer?
Robert Rubino: Well, partly because the ovaries are well protected inside the abdominal cavity of a woman so a cancerous lesion, basically what they do are cells that grow and don’t recognize their neighbors so they pile up on each other and they grow rapidly. They are allowed to grow and they have kind of the relative open space of the abdominal cavity in which to grow so women won’t feel too much initially. And it’s only when the cancer gets to a very large state where they start to feel symptoms of other organs being compressed and things like that. So that’s why it’s so sinister. There’s nothing obvious like a melanoma, you kind of see it and it grows and it changes so you pick those up early. The uterus, uterine cancer sends you a literal red flag. You know, after the menopause if a woman sees bleeding, that’s a sign that there’s something wrong. And uterine cancer is often picked up early and cured because we have a warning. So the ovaries don’t give us much in the way of warning. So bloating is really the one symptom that we hear from patients that we always respect. And of course most times when you work up bloating, you come up empty-handed, but we always have in the back of our mind is it the ovary.
Question: What is the survival rate?
Robert Rubino: Dismal for ovarian cancer. You know, stage 3 and 4, very low survival rate, although it has improved in the last few years with new chemotherapy regimens. You have a much better survival rate in, you know, stage 1 cancer obviously, but very few are picked up. The majority are picked up in stage 3 or 4.
Recorded on: 04/29/2008
Robert Rubino offers his take on the present and future state of women's cancer prevention and treatment.
Sallie Krawcheck and Bob Kulhan will be talking money, jobs, and how the pandemic will disproportionally affect women's finances.
Health officials in China reported that a man was infected with bubonic plague, the infectious disease that caused the Black Death.
- The case was reported in the city of Bayannur, which has issued a level-three plague prevention warning.
- Modern antibiotics can effectively treat bubonic plague, which spreads mainly by fleas.
- Chinese health officials are also monitoring a newly discovered type of swine flu that has the potential to develop into a pandemic virus.
Bacteria under microscope
needpix.com<p>Today, bubonic plague can be treated effectively with antibiotics.</p><p style="margin-left: 20px;">"Unlike in the 14th century, we now have an understanding of how this disease is transmitted," Dr. Shanthi Kappagoda, an infectious disease physician at Stanford Health Care, told <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health-news/seriously-dont-worry-about-the-plague#Heres-how-the-plague-spreads" target="_blank">Healthline</a>. "We know how to prevent it — avoid handling sick or dead animals in areas where there is transmission. We are also able to treat patients who are infected with effective antibiotics, and can give antibiotics to people who may have been exposed to the bacteria [and] prevent them [from] getting sick."</p>
This plague patient is displaying a swollen, ruptured inguinal lymph node, or buboe.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention<p>Still, hundreds of people develop bubonic plague every year. In the U.S., a handful of cases occur annually, particularly in New Mexico, Arizona and Colorado, <a href="https://www.cdc.gov/plague/faq/index.html" target="_blank">where habitats allow the bacteria to spread more easily among wild rodent populations</a>. But these cases are very rare, mainly because you need to be in close contact with rodents in order to get infected. And though plague can spread from human to human, this <a href="https://www.healthline.com/health-news/seriously-dont-worry-about-the-plague#Heres-how-the-plague-spreads" target="_blank">only occurs with pneumonic plague</a>, and transmission is also rare.</p>
A new swine flu in China<p>Last week, researchers in China also reported another public health concern: a new virus that has "all the essential hallmarks" of a pandemic virus.<br></p><p>In a paper published in the <a href="https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/06/23/1921186117" target="_blank">Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences</a>, researchers say the virus was discovered in pigs in China, and it descended from the H1N1 virus, commonly called "swine flu." That virus was able to transmit from human to human, and it killed an estimated 151,700 to 575,400 people worldwide from 2009 to 2010, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.</p>There's no evidence showing that the new virus can spread from person to person. But the researchers did find that 10 percent of swine workers had been infected by the virus, called G4 reassortant EA H1N1. This level of infectivity raises concerns, because it "greatly enhances the opportunity for virus adaptation in humans and raises concerns for the possible generation of pandemic viruses," the researchers wrote.
The word "learning" opens up space for more people, places, and ideas.
- The terms 'education' and 'learning' are often used interchangeably, but there is a cultural connotation to the former that can be limiting. Education naturally links to schooling, which is only one form of learning.
- Gregg Behr, founder and co-chair of Remake Learning, believes that this small word shift opens up the possibilities in terms of how and where learning can happen. It also becomes a more inclusive practice, welcoming in a larger, more diverse group of thinkers.
- Post-COVID, the way we think about what learning looks like will inevitably change, so it's crucial to adjust and begin building the necessary support systems today.
Scientists uncovered the secrets of what drove some of the world's last remaining woolly mammoths to extinction.
Every summer, children on the Alaskan island of St Paul cool down in Lake Hill, a crater lake in an extinct volcano – unaware of the mysteries that lie beneath.
The coronavirus pandemic has brought out the perception of selfishness among many.
- Selfish behavior has been analyzed by philosophers and psychologists for centuries.
- New research shows people may be wired for altruistic behavior and get more benefits from it.
- Times of crisis tend to increase self-centered acts.